Influenza virus is an important RNA virus causing pandemics (Spanish Flu (1918), Asian Flu (1957), Hong Kong Flu (1968) and Swine Flu (2009)) over the last decades. Due to the spontaneous mutations of these viral proteins, currently available antiviral and anti-influenza drugs quickly develop resistance. To account this, only limited anti- influenza drugs have been approved for the therapeutic use. These include amantadine and rimantadine (M2 proton channel blockers), zanamivir, oseltamivir and peramivir (neuraminidase inhibitors), favipravir (polymerase inhibitor) and laninamivir. This review provides an outline on the strategies to develop novel, potent chemotherapeutic agents against M2 proton channel. Primarily, the M2 proton channel blockers elicit pharmacological activity through destabilizing the helices by blocking the proton transport across the transmembrane. The biologically important compounds discovered using the scaffolds such as bisnoradmantane, noradamantane, triazine, spiroadamantane, isoxazole, amino alcohol, azaspiro, spirene, pinanamine, etc are reported to exhibit anti-influenza activity against wild or mutant type (S31N and V27A) of M2 proton channel protein. The reported studies explained that the adamantane based compounds (amantadine and rimantadine) strongly interact with His37 (through hydrogen bonding) and Ala30, Ile33 and Gly34 residues (hydrophobic interactions). The adamantane and the non-adamantane scaffolds fit perfectly in the active site pocket present in the wild type and the charged amino groups (ammonium) create positive electrostatic potential, which blocks the transport of protons across the pore. In the mutated proteins, larger or smaller binding pocket are created by small or large mutant residues, which do not allow the molecules fit in the active site. This causes the channel to be unblocked and the protons are allowed to transfer inside the pore. The structural analysis of the M2 proton channel blockers illustrated that the adamantane derivatives have action against both influenza A and B, but have no effect on the mutants.
|Journal||Mini - Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry|
|Number of pages||11|
|Publication status||Published - 3. Oct 2014|
- Influenza virus
- M2 proton channel