Validation of the Danish version of the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool

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Objective: Health-care professionals (HCPs) who are involved in an unanticipated adverse patient event, a medical error or a patient-related injury can become second victims. Being a second victim can lead to various symptoms, affecting the well-being of HCPs and possible turnover intentions or absenteeism. An increasing number of hospitals have implemented a second-victim support programme. To achieve unique insights into what works and what does not work in second-victim support programmes, HCPs’ perceptions are needed. The aim of this study was to translate the Second Victim Experience and Support Tool (SVEST) into Danish and test the psychometric properties of the Danish version (D-SVEST). Methods: The SVEST self-administered questionnaire was translated into Danish following the World Health Organization’s guidelines. Assessments of the content validity, construct validity and internal consistency were performed based on 171 participants. Results: The study demonstrated that the D-SVEST is content valid and fits the a priori defined structure. Yet, four items revealed unacceptable factor loadings (<0.4) and item-rest correlations <0.3. All Cronbach’s alpha estimates for these five dimensions exceeded 0.70. The dimensions on colleague and institutional support did not contribute to the validity. Conclusions: In conclusion, the D-SVEST is considered relevant and valid for measuring second-victim experiences and the adequacy of support resources. However, we recommend a modification of items 9 and 25 to enhance the measurement scale in a Danish context. The D-SVEST can be used by health-care management at Danish hospitals.

Original languageEnglish
JournalScandinavian Journal of Public Health
Issue number4
Pages (from-to)497-506
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • adverse events
  • medical error
  • Second victim
  • surveys
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Humans
  • Denmark
  • Translating
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Psychometrics/methods


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