Vaccine effectiveness of the pneumococcal polysaccharide and conjugated vaccines in elderly and high-risk populations in preventing invasive pneumococcal disease: a systematic search and meta-analysis

Melina Gade Sikjær*, Andreas Arnholdt Pedersen, Mari Stenvold Wik, Synne Smith Stensholt, Ole Hilberg, Anders Løkke

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality globally. However, the literature on the vaccine effectiveness (VE) of 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) and 13-valent conjugated vaccine (PCV13) against IPD in adults is sparse. The aim was to summarize the available evidence on the VE of the PPV23 and the PCV13 in elderly individuals against IPD and to investigate how age and comorbidities influence VE against IPD.

METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in Medline and Embase in February 2021. We used combinations of terms related to PPV23, PCV13, elderly, high-risk populations, and IPD. Eligible articles published since 2010 were included. Two authors reviewed and extracted data.

RESULTS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria for PPV23. The meta-analysis showed a reduced OR for all-type IPD with the use of PPV23 vaccine compared with unvaccinated controls (OR 0.69; 95%CI 0.54, 0.88) and a reduced OR for vaccine-type IPD compared with non-vaccine type IPD (0.69; 95%CI 0.63, 0.76). VE against vaccine-type IPD ranged from 28% to 54.1% for individuals aged 65-79 and from 7.5% to 34% for those aged ≥80-85 years. Most studies found a lower VE of PPV23 in populations with comorbidities and in immunocompromised populations compared with the VE for individuals without comorbidities.One study met the inclusion criteria for PCV13. The vaccine efficacy of PCV13 against IPD in individuals aged ≥65 was 75.0% (95% CI, 41.4 to 90.8).

CONCLUSION: The results from this review show a reduction of IPD in elderly and high-risk populations vaccinated with PPV23 and PCV13. The protective effect may be lower in elderly individuals aged >80 and in individuals with comorbidities. However, the literature is sparse; large-scale prospective studies are required to evaluate the VE of PPV23 and PCV13 vaccination in adults against IPD.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2168354
JournalEuropean Clinical Respiratory Journal
Volume10
Issue number1
Number of pages10
ISSN2001-8525
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

© 2023 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

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