Use of thyroid hormones in hypothyroid and euthyroid patients: A 2020 THESIS questionnaire survey of members of the Danish Endocrine Society

K. R. Riis*, J. S. Frølich, L. Hegedüs, R. Negro, R. Attanasio, E. V. Nagy, E. Papini, P. Perros, S. J. Bonnema

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Purpose: The standard treatment of hypothyroidism is levothyroxine (LT4), which is available as tablets or soft-gel capsules in Denmark. This study aimed to investigate Danish endocrinologists’ use of thyroid hormones in hypothyroid and euthyroid patients. Methods: An e-mail with an invitation to participate in an online survey investigating practices about substitution with thyroid hormones was sent to all members of the Danish Endocrine Society (DES). Results: Out of 488 eligible DES members, a total of 152 (31.2%) respondents were included in the analysis. The majority (94.1%) of responding DES members use LT4 as the treatment of choice. Other treatment options for hypothyroidism are also used, as 58.6% prescribe combination therapy with liothyronine (LT3) + LT4 in their clinical practice. LT4 + LT3 combination is preferred in patients with persistent symptoms of hypothyroidism despite biochemical euthyroidism on LT4 treatment. Over half of the respondents answered that thyroid hormone therapy is never indicated for euthyroid patients, but 42.1% will consider it for euthyroid infertile women with high antibody levels. In various conditions that could interfere with the absorption of LT4, most responding Danish endocrinologists prefer tablets and do not expect a significant difference when switching from one type of tablet formulation to another. Conclusion: The treatment of choice for hypothyroidism is LT4. Combination therapy with LT4 + LT3 is considered for patients with persistent symptoms. Even in the presence of conditions affecting bioavailability, responding Danish endocrinologists prefer LT4 tablets rather than newer LT4 formulations, such as soft-gel capsules.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of Endocrinological Investigation
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 28. Mar 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021, Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE).


  • Danish Endocrine Society
  • Euthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Levothyroxine
  • Liothyronine
  • Survey


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