Treatment Options in Late-Line Colorectal Cancer: Lessons Learned from Recent Randomized Studies

Line Schmidt Tarpgaard*, Stine Brændegaard Winther, Per Pfeiffer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Systemic treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) has improved considerably over the past 20 years. First- and second-line combinations of 5FU, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan, with or without anti-angiogenic and/or anti-EGFR antibodies, were approved shortly after the turn of the millennium. Further triumphs were not seen for almost 10 years, until the approval of initially regorafenib and shortly after trifluridine/tipiracil. A growing understanding of tumor biology through molecular profiling has led to further treatment options. Here, we review the most recent clinical data for late-line treatment options in mCRC, focusing on randomized trials if available. We include recommendations for options in unselected patients and therapies that should only be offered in patients with distinct tumor profiles (e.g., BRAF mutations, KRAS G12C mutations, HER2 amplification, deficient MMR, or NTRK gene fusions).

Original languageEnglish
Article number126
Issue number1
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • biomarker-driven strategies
  • colorectal cancer
  • metastatic
  • molecular characterization
  • refractory
  • targeted agents


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