Tracking visitors in crowded spaces using zenith images: Drones and time-lapse

José A. Donaire, Núria Galí*, Barbora Gulisova

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The aim of this article is to analyse the extent to which zenith images can be used to study visitor behaviour in crowded spaces. The paper presents two studies of zenith image capture in two micro-spaces (both monumental heritage sites) in the north-east of Spain: the first used drone images to conduct a quantitative study on patterns of visitor use at Empúries archaeological site; and the second was a qualitative study on conflicts of use in Cathedral Square, Girona, using time-lapse photography from a fixed camera.
Results of the study show that visitor behaviour at the sites does not alter in peak season when spaces become increasingly crowded.
Original languageEnglish
Article number100680
JournalTourism Management Perspectives
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020
Externally publishedYes


  • Zenith image
  • Drone
  • Time-lapse
  • Visitor behaviour
  • Overcrowd
  • Space-time


Dive into the research topics of 'Tracking visitors in crowded spaces using zenith images: Drones and time-lapse'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this