Three-Dimensional Accuracy and Stability of Personalized Implants in Orthognathic Surgery: A Systematic Review and a Meta-Analysis

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This systematic review aimed to determine the accuracy/stability of patient-specific osteosynthesis (PSI) in orthognathic surgery according to three-dimensional (3D) outcome analysis and in comparison to conventional osteosynthesis and computer-aided designed and manufactured (CAD/CAM) splints or wafers. The PRISMA guidelines were followed and six academic databases and Google Scholar were searched. Records reporting 3D accuracy/stability measurements of bony segments fixated with PSI were included. Of 485 initial records, 21 met the eligibility (566 subjects), nine of which also qualified for a meta-analysis (164 subjects). Six studies had a high risk of bias (29%), and the rest were of low or moderate risk. Procedures comprised either single-piece or segmental Le Fort I and/or mandibular osteotomy and/or genioplasty. A stratified meta-analysis including 115 subjects with single-piece Le Fort I PSI showed that the largest absolute mean deviations were 0.5 mm antero-posteriorly and 0.65° in pitch. PSIs were up to 0.85 mm and 2.35° more accurate than conventional osteosynthesis with CAD/CAM splint or wafer (p < 0.0001). However, the clinical relevance of the improved accuracy has not been shown. The literature on PSI for multi-piece Le Fort I, mandibular osteotomies and genioplasty procedure is characterized by high methodological heterogeneity and a lack of randomized controlled trials. The literature is lacking on the 3D stability of bony segments fixated with PSI.
Original languageEnglish
Article number125
JournalJournal of Personalized Medicine
Issue number1
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - 7. Jan 2023


  • accuracy
  • meta-analysis
  • orthognathic surgery
  • patient-specific implants
  • stability
  • systematic review
  • three-dimensional


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