The SMOOTH-Robot: A Modular, Interactive Service Robot

Norbert Krüger*, Kerstin Fischer, Poramate Manoonpong, Oskar Palinko, Leon Bodenhagen, Timo Baumann , Jens Kjærum, Inaki Rano, Lakshadeep Naik, William Kristian Juel, Frederik Haarslev, Jevgeni Ignasov, Emanuela Marchetti, Rosalyn M. Langedijk, Avgi Kollakidou, Kasper Camillus Jeppesen, Conny Heidtmann, Lars Dalgaard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

46 Downloads (Pure)


The SMOOTH-robot is a mobile robot that—due to its modularity—combines a relatively low price with the possibility to be used for a large variety of tasks in a wide range of domains. In this article, we demonstrate the potential of the SMOOTH-robot through three use cases, two of which were performed in elderly care homes. The robot is designed so that it can either make itself ready or be quickly changed by staff to perform different tasks. We carefully considered important design parameters such as the appearance, intended and unintended interactions with users, and the technical complexity, in order to achieve high acceptability and a sufficient degree of utilization of the robot. Three demonstrated use cases indicate that such a robot could contribute to an improved work environment, having the potential to free resources of care staff which could be allocated to actual care-giving tasks. Moreover, the SMOOTH-robot can be used in many other domains, as we will also exemplify in this article.

Original languageEnglish
Article number645639
JournalFrontiers in Robotics and AI
Number of pages22
Publication statusPublished - 5. Oct 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© Copyright © 2021 Krüger, Fischer, Manoonpong, Palinko, Bodenhagen, Baumann, Kjærum, Rano, Naik, Juel, Haarslev, Ignasov, Marchetti, Langedijk, Kollakidou, Jeppesen, Heidtmann and Dalgaard.


  • human–robot interaction
  • mobile robots
  • proactive control
  • service robots
  • socially aware navigation


Dive into the research topics of 'The SMOOTH-Robot: A Modular, Interactive Service Robot'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this