The Role of Direct and Indirect Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Protection Against Oxidative Stress

Lars Porskjær Christensen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review

Abstract

A series of exogenous compounds are able to protect against oxidative stress by induction of phase 2 enzymes (cytoprotective proteins) through activation of the redox sensitive Keap1-Nrf2-ARE regulatory pathway. Inducers of cytoprotective proteins are, for example, found among polyphenols, of which many are present in our daily diet. Polyphenol inducers are either Michael acceptors or can be metabolized to reactive electrophiles capable of alkylating cysteine thiols in Keap1 and/or can induce the formation of cytosolic reactive oxygen species, resulting in the release of Nrf2 followed by activation of gene transcription through the ARE leading to the formation of cytoprotective proteins. Most polyphenols are direct antioxidants in vitro, but nevertheless seem to exert their antioxidant effect more by induction of cytoprotective proteins that are involved in a variety of antioxidant actions from reduction of oxidants to the production of cytoprotective proteins and endogenous direct antioxidants such as glutathione. Therefore the protection against oxidative stress of polyphenols and polyphenol-derived compounds in vivo is mainly due to their indirect antioxidant effect.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPolyphenols : Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease
EditorsRonald Ross Watson, Victor R. Preedy, Sherma Zibadi
PublisherAcademic Press
Publication date2018
Edition2.
Pages147-179
Chapter13
ISBN (Print)9780128130063
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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polyphenols
oxidative stress
antioxidants
proteins
gene activation
thiols
oxidants
cysteine
glutathione
reactive oxygen species
transcription (genetics)
enzymes
diet

Cite this

Christensen, L. P. (2018). The Role of Direct and Indirect Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Protection Against Oxidative Stress. In R. R. Watson, V. R. Preedy, & S. Zibadi (Eds.), Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease (2. ed., pp. 147-179). Academic Press. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813006-3.00013-1
Christensen, Lars Porskjær . / The Role of Direct and Indirect Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Protection Against Oxidative Stress. Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease. editor / Ronald Ross Watson ; Victor R. Preedy ; Sherma Zibadi. 2. ed. Academic Press, 2018. pp. 147-179
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Christensen, LP 2018, The Role of Direct and Indirect Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Protection Against Oxidative Stress. in RR Watson, VR Preedy & S Zibadi (eds), Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease. 2. edn, Academic Press, pp. 147-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813006-3.00013-1

The Role of Direct and Indirect Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Protection Against Oxidative Stress. / Christensen, Lars Porskjær .

Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease. ed. / Ronald Ross Watson; Victor R. Preedy; Sherma Zibadi. 2. ed. Academic Press, 2018. p. 147-179.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review

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AB - A series of exogenous compounds are able to protect against oxidative stress by induction of phase 2 enzymes (cytoprotective proteins) through activation of the redox sensitive Keap1-Nrf2-ARE regulatory pathway. Inducers of cytoprotective proteins are, for example, found among polyphenols, of which many are present in our daily diet. Polyphenol inducers are either Michael acceptors or can be metabolized to reactive electrophiles capable of alkylating cysteine thiols in Keap1 and/or can induce the formation of cytosolic reactive oxygen species, resulting in the release of Nrf2 followed by activation of gene transcription through the ARE leading to the formation of cytoprotective proteins. Most polyphenols are direct antioxidants in vitro, but nevertheless seem to exert their antioxidant effect more by induction of cytoprotective proteins that are involved in a variety of antioxidant actions from reduction of oxidants to the production of cytoprotective proteins and endogenous direct antioxidants such as glutathione. Therefore the protection against oxidative stress of polyphenols and polyphenol-derived compounds in vivo is mainly due to their indirect antioxidant effect.

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Christensen LP. The Role of Direct and Indirect Polyphenolic Antioxidants in Protection Against Oxidative Stress. In Watson RR, Preedy VR, Zibadi S, editors, Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease. 2. ed. Academic Press. 2018. p. 147-179 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-813006-3.00013-1