Introduction: The lifestyle of Inuit in Greenland and worldwide is undergoing a transition from a fisher-hunter to a westernized society and meanwhile the prevalence of type-2 diabetes (T2D) has increased dramatically. Studies have shown that a common nonsense p.Arg684Ter variant in TBC1D4, which is frequent in Greenland, confers genetic susceptibility towards high risk of T2D. The aim of the study is to investigate whether a traditional marine diet, with high fat and low carbohydrate, will improve glycemic control in Greenland Inuit compared to a western diet. Moreover, we want to examine if the response is more pronounced in carriers of the p.Arg684Ter variant. Materials and methods: We will conduct a randomized, clinical cross-over trial with two dietary intervention periods of four weeks duration. The diet intervention comprise provision of >20E% and instruction for the remaining part of the diet. We expect to include 30 homozygous carriers and 30 homozygous non-carriers of the p.Arg684Ter variant, aged 18–80 years, across three Greenlandic towns. The primary outcome is plasma (p)-glucose 2 h post an oral glucose tolerance test and we aim to have 80% power, at α = 0.05, to detect a difference of 1.1 mmol/L. We will also include supporting measures of glucose homeostasis, assess other markers of the metabolic syndrome and perform metabolome and microbiome profiling. The statistical analysis will be performed as complete case analyses using linear mixed models. Ethics and dissemination: The study received approval by the Ethics Committee of Greenland (KVUG 2018-26) and will be disseminated via international peer-reviewed journal articles and conferences. Trial registration number: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier no. NCT04011904.
- Glucose metabolism
- Type 2 diabetes