The Legal Relations of the European Union with the Principality of Monaco

Graham Butler*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


The European continent has only one micro-state that is not landlocked: the Principality of Monaco. This city-state along the French Riviera is an independent state under international law and is not an EU Member State. Therefore, the law and policy of the EU’s external relations applies, which must cater for the Principality’s peculiar existence because of practical necessity. The EU retains differentiated legal relations with its closest geographical neighbours, and the EU-Monégasque relationship sees several unilateral EU measures taken to account for Monaco, as well as a limited array of international agreements between the parties, including a monetary agreement. These cumulatively make up the legal aspects to their international relations with each other. At first sight, these legal relations appear limited. Yet, as this article establishes, EU-Monégasque legal relations have widened and deepened over time, and an association agreement is on the horizon to account for the necessitated intensity of cooperation on a legal footing. Such a development would bring the Principality legally closer to the EU than it ever has been before.
Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean Foreign Affairs Review
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)259-282
Number of pages24
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2023


Dive into the research topics of 'The Legal Relations of the European Union with the Principality of Monaco'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this