The burden and epidemiology of community-acquired central nervous system infections: a multinational study

H Erdem, A Inan, E Guven, S Hargreaves, L Larsen, G Shehata, E Pernicova, E Khan, L Bastakova, S Namani, A Harxhi, T Roganovic, B Lakatos, S Uysal, O R Sipahi, A Crisan, E Miftode, R Stebel, B Jegorovic, Z FehérC Jekkel, N Pandak, A Moravveji, H Yilmaz, A Khalifa, U Musabak, S Yilmaz, A Jouhar, N Oztoprak, X Argemi, M Baldeyrou, G Bellaud, R V Moroti, R Hasbun, L Salazar, R Tekin, A Canestri, L Čalkić, L Praticò, F Yilmaz-Karadag, L Santos, A Pinto, F Kaptan, P Bossi, J Aron, A Duissenova, G Shopayeva, B Utaganov, S Grgic, G Ersoz, A K L Wu, K C Lung, A Bruzsa, L B Radic, H Kahraman, M Momen-Heravi, S Kulzhanova, F Rigo, M Konkayeva, Z Smagulova, T Tang, P Chan, S Ahmetagic, H Porobic-Jahic, F Moradi, S Kaya, Y Cag, A Bohr, C Artuk, I Celik, M Amsilli, H C Gul, A Cascio, M Lanzafame, M Nassar

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Risk assessment of central nervous system (CNS) infection patients is of key importance in predicting likely pathogens. However, data are lacking on the epidemiology globally. We performed a multicenter study to understand the burden of community-acquired CNS (CA-CNS) infections between 2012 and 2014. A total of 2583 patients with CA-CNS infections were included from 37 referral centers in 20 countries. Of these, 477 (18.5%) patients survived with sequelae and 227 (8.8%) died, and 1879 (72.7%) patients were discharged with complete cure. The most frequent infecting pathogens in this study were Streptococcus pneumoniae (n = 206, 8%) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (n = 152, 5.9%). Varicella zoster virus and Listeria were other common pathogens in the elderly. Although staphylococci and Listeria resulted in frequent infections in immunocompromised patients, cryptococci were leading pathogens in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive individuals. Among the patients with any proven etiology, 96 (8.9%) patients presented with clinical features of a chronic CNS disease. Neurosyphilis, neurobrucellosis, neuroborreliosis, and CNS tuberculosis had a predilection to present chronic courses. Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, M. tuberculosis, and S. pneumoniae were the most fatal forms, while sequelae were significantly higher for herpes simplex virus type 1 (p < 0.05 for all). Tackling the high burden of CNS infections globally can only be achieved with effective pneumococcal immunization and strategies to eliminate tuberculosis, and more must be done to improve diagnostic capacity.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEuropean journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology
Volume36
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)1595–1611
ISSN0934-9723
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Journal Article

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