Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ambient Underwater Sound in the Baltic Sea

Mirko Mustonen, Aleksander Klauson, Mathias Andersson, Dominique Clorennec, Thomas Folegot, Radomił Koza, Jukka Pajala, Leif Persson, Jarosław Tegowski, Jakob Tougaard, Magnus Wahlberg, Peter Sigray

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Abstract

During last decades, anthropogenic underwater sound and its chronic impact on marine species have been recognised as an environmental protection challenge. At the same time, studies on the spatial and temporal variability of ambient sound, and how it is affected by biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors are lacking. This paper presents analysis of a large-scale and long-term underwater sound monitoring in the Baltic Sea. Throughout the year 2014, sound was monitored in 36 Baltic Sea locations. Selected locations covered different natural conditions and ship traffic intensities. The 63 Hz, 125 Hz and 2 kHz one-third octave band sound pressure levels were calculated and analysed. The levels varied significantly from one monitoring location to another. The annual median sound pressure level of the quietest and the loudest location differed almost 50 dB in the 63 Hz one-third octave band. Largest difference in the monthly medians was 15 dB in 63 Hz one-third octave band. The same monitoring locations annual estimated probability density functions for two yearly periods show strong similarity. The data variability grows as the averaging time period is reduced. Maritime traffic elevates the ambient sound levels in many areas of the Baltic Sea during extensive time periods.

Original languageEnglish
JournalScientific Reports
Volume9
Number of pages1
ISSN2045-2322
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 13. Sep 2019

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Mustonen, M., Klauson, A., Andersson, M., Clorennec, D., Folegot, T., Koza, R., ... Sigray, P. (2019). Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ambient Underwater Sound in the Baltic Sea. Scientific Reports, 9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48891-x
Mustonen, Mirko ; Klauson, Aleksander ; Andersson, Mathias ; Clorennec, Dominique ; Folegot, Thomas ; Koza, Radomił ; Pajala, Jukka ; Persson, Leif ; Tegowski, Jarosław ; Tougaard, Jakob ; Wahlberg, Magnus ; Sigray, Peter. / Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ambient Underwater Sound in the Baltic Sea. In: Scientific Reports. 2019 ; Vol. 9.
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abstract = "During last decades, anthropogenic underwater sound and its chronic impact on marine species have been recognised as an environmental protection challenge. At the same time, studies on the spatial and temporal variability of ambient sound, and how it is affected by biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors are lacking. This paper presents analysis of a large-scale and long-term underwater sound monitoring in the Baltic Sea. Throughout the year 2014, sound was monitored in 36 Baltic Sea locations. Selected locations covered different natural conditions and ship traffic intensities. The 63 Hz, 125 Hz and 2 kHz one-third octave band sound pressure levels were calculated and analysed. The levels varied significantly from one monitoring location to another. The annual median sound pressure level of the quietest and the loudest location differed almost 50 dB in the 63 Hz one-third octave band. Largest difference in the monthly medians was 15 dB in 63 Hz one-third octave band. The same monitoring locations annual estimated probability density functions for two yearly periods show strong similarity. The data variability grows as the averaging time period is reduced. Maritime traffic elevates the ambient sound levels in many areas of the Baltic Sea during extensive time periods.",
author = "Mirko Mustonen and Aleksander Klauson and Mathias Andersson and Dominique Clorennec and Thomas Folegot and Radomił Koza and Jukka Pajala and Leif Persson and Jarosław Tegowski and Jakob Tougaard and Magnus Wahlberg and Peter Sigray",
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Mustonen, M, Klauson, A, Andersson, M, Clorennec, D, Folegot, T, Koza, R, Pajala, J, Persson, L, Tegowski, J, Tougaard, J, Wahlberg, M & Sigray, P 2019, 'Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ambient Underwater Sound in the Baltic Sea', Scientific Reports, vol. 9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48891-x

Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ambient Underwater Sound in the Baltic Sea. / Mustonen, Mirko; Klauson, Aleksander; Andersson, Mathias; Clorennec, Dominique; Folegot, Thomas; Koza, Radomił; Pajala, Jukka; Persson, Leif; Tegowski, Jarosław; Tougaard, Jakob; Wahlberg, Magnus; Sigray, Peter.

In: Scientific Reports, Vol. 9, 13.09.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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AU - Mustonen, Mirko

AU - Klauson, Aleksander

AU - Andersson, Mathias

AU - Clorennec, Dominique

AU - Folegot, Thomas

AU - Koza, Radomił

AU - Pajala, Jukka

AU - Persson, Leif

AU - Tegowski, Jarosław

AU - Tougaard, Jakob

AU - Wahlberg, Magnus

AU - Sigray, Peter

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N2 - During last decades, anthropogenic underwater sound and its chronic impact on marine species have been recognised as an environmental protection challenge. At the same time, studies on the spatial and temporal variability of ambient sound, and how it is affected by biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors are lacking. This paper presents analysis of a large-scale and long-term underwater sound monitoring in the Baltic Sea. Throughout the year 2014, sound was monitored in 36 Baltic Sea locations. Selected locations covered different natural conditions and ship traffic intensities. The 63 Hz, 125 Hz and 2 kHz one-third octave band sound pressure levels were calculated and analysed. The levels varied significantly from one monitoring location to another. The annual median sound pressure level of the quietest and the loudest location differed almost 50 dB in the 63 Hz one-third octave band. Largest difference in the monthly medians was 15 dB in 63 Hz one-third octave band. The same monitoring locations annual estimated probability density functions for two yearly periods show strong similarity. The data variability grows as the averaging time period is reduced. Maritime traffic elevates the ambient sound levels in many areas of the Baltic Sea during extensive time periods.

AB - During last decades, anthropogenic underwater sound and its chronic impact on marine species have been recognised as an environmental protection challenge. At the same time, studies on the spatial and temporal variability of ambient sound, and how it is affected by biotic, abiotic and anthropogenic factors are lacking. This paper presents analysis of a large-scale and long-term underwater sound monitoring in the Baltic Sea. Throughout the year 2014, sound was monitored in 36 Baltic Sea locations. Selected locations covered different natural conditions and ship traffic intensities. The 63 Hz, 125 Hz and 2 kHz one-third octave band sound pressure levels were calculated and analysed. The levels varied significantly from one monitoring location to another. The annual median sound pressure level of the quietest and the loudest location differed almost 50 dB in the 63 Hz one-third octave band. Largest difference in the monthly medians was 15 dB in 63 Hz one-third octave band. The same monitoring locations annual estimated probability density functions for two yearly periods show strong similarity. The data variability grows as the averaging time period is reduced. Maritime traffic elevates the ambient sound levels in many areas of the Baltic Sea during extensive time periods.

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JF - Scientific Reports

SN - 2045-2322

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Mustonen M, Klauson A, Andersson M, Clorennec D, Folegot T, Koza R et al. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Ambient Underwater Sound in the Baltic Sea. Scientific Reports. 2019 Sep 13;9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48891-x