Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors and the risk of gout: A Danish population based cohort study and symmetry analysis

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Purpose: Sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT2-I) are frequently used in type 2 diabetes and have recently been associated with lower rates of gout compared to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP1-RA). Our objective was to assess the association between SGLT2-I initiation and gout using a cohort study design and a symmetry analysis. Methods: Using the Danish nationwide health registries, we conducted an active comparator, new user cohort study comparing the 3-year risk of gout among SGLT2-I users with propensity score matched GLP1-RA users. Individuals were followed according to the intention-to-treat, and incidence rate differences (IRD) and hazard ratios (HR) were obtained. To address unmeasured confounding that is stable over time, a corresponding symmetry analysis was performed. Results: 11 047 pairs of SGLT2-I and GLP1-RA users were identified, contributing 42 201 person-years of follow-up. The incidence rate of gout was 4.1 and 7.0 events per 1000 person years among SGLT2-I and GLP1-RA users, yielding an IRD of −3.0 (95% confidence interval: −4.4 to −1.5) and HR of 0.58 (0.44 to 0.75). In the symmetry analysis, 80 individuals initiated SGLT2-Is prior to gout; 118 patients initiated treatment after gout. The trend adjusted SR was 0.63 (0.47 to 0.84) and the active comparator adjusted estimate was 0.67 (0.44 to 0.86). Conclusions: Initiation of SGLT2-Is was associated with a markedly decreased risk of gout compared to initiation of GLP1-RAs. The findings are comparable to prior studies addressing this association.

Original languageEnglish
JournalPharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
Issue number10
Pages (from-to)1391-1395
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2021


  • gout
  • sodium-glucose transporter 2 inhibitors


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