Socioeconomic status in danish transgender persons: A nationwide register-based cohort study

Dorte Glintborg*, Katrine Hass Rubin, Simon Bang Mohr Kristensen, Øjvind Lidegaard, Guy T’sjoen, Aisa Burgwal, Malene Hilden, Marianne Skovsager Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Background: Gender dysphoria could be associated with low socioeconomic status (SES). SES could be modified by age, ethnic background, and medical morbidity. Aim: To determine SES in a national study population including transgender persons in Denmark. Methods: National register-based cohort study in Danish transgender persons and age-matched controls. The transgender study cohort included persons with ICD-10 diagnosis code of 'gender identity disorder' and/or persons with legal sex change and persons who fulfiled the inclusion criteria during 2000–2018. The main outcome measure was SES including personal income, occupational status, and education. Results: The cohort included 2770 transgender persons and 27,700 controls. In the transgender study cohort, 1437 were assigned male at birth (AMAB), median age (interquartile range, IQR) 26.0 (17.3) years, and 1333 were assigned female at birth (AFAB), median age 22.5 (10.3) years. Adjusting for age and sex, the relative risk ratio (RRR) of low vs high personal income was 5.6 (95% CI: 4.9; 6.3) in transgender persons compared to controls. The RRR of low vs high income was 6.9 (5.8; 8.3) in persons AMAB compared to control males and 4.7 (3.9; 5.6) in persons AFAB compared to control females. The RRR of low vs high income was 3.7 (3.2; 4.3) in transgender persons of Danish origin compared to controls. The Charlson comorbidity index was comparable in transgender persons vs controls. Conclusions: Being transgender was negatively associated with SES. In transgender personsthe risk of low vs high income could be more pronounced in transgender persons of foreign origin.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEndocrine Connections
Issue number9
Pages (from-to)1155-1166
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The authors Published by Bioscientifica Ltd.


  • Charlson comorbidity index
  • ethnicity
  • gender identity
  • gender incongruence
  • nationwide
  • register-based
  • socioeconomic status
  • transgender


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