Background: Polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds exhibit high biocompatibility and are attractive as vascular conduits. Materials & methods: PCL tubes were cultivated in bioreactor with human adipose regenerative cells to assess ex vivo cytocompatibility, whereas in vivo PCL tube patency was evaluated in sheep carotid bypass with and without antithrombotic treatment. Results:Ex vivo results revealed increasing adipose regenerative cells on PCL using dynamic bioreactor culturing. In vivo data showed that 67% (2/3) of grafts in the antithrombotic group were patent at day 28, while 100% (3/3) of control grafts were occluded already during the first week due to thrombosis. Histology showed that patent PCL grafts were recellularized by host cells. Conclusion: PCL tubes may work as small diameter vascular scaffolds under antithrombotic treatment.