BACKGROUND: The use of simulators in a training programme for technically challenging procedures has the advantages of lowering the risk of patient complications while helping the trainees with the initial part of their learning curve.
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of simulation-based training in flexible bronchoscopy and endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS).
METHODS: We identified 1,006 publications in the PubMed database and included publications on flexible bronchoscopy below the carina and EBUS involving hands-on simulation-based training. Publications were excluded if they were written in languages other than English, if paediatric airways were involved or if they were not journal articles. The screening process was performed by 2 individuals, and a third reviewer made the final decision in case of disagreement.
RESULTS: We included 30 publications. The studies included participants of varying experience and most commonly used a virtual reality simulator as a training modality. Assessment of the participants' skills was based on simulator metrics or on an assessment tool. Some studies included performance on patients for assessment of the operator after training on a simulator.
CONCLUSIONS: Simulation-based training was demonstrated to be more efficient than the traditional apprenticeship model. Physical models and virtual reality simulators complement each other. Simulation-based education should be based on a mastery learning approach and structured as directed self-regulated learning in a distributed training programme.
- Journal Article