Serum vitamin K 1 associated to microangiopathy and/or macroangiopathy in individuals with and without diabetes

Ida Bøgh Andersen, Claus Lohman Brasen, Hashmatullah Nasimi, Maria Stougård, Mette Bliddal, Anders Green, Anne Schmedes, Ivan Brandslund, Jonna Skov Madsen*

*Corresponding author for this work

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Objective Vitamin K has proposed beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether serum vitamin K 1 was associated with prevalence of microangiopathy and/or macroangiopathy. Research design and methods Serum vitamin K was quantified in 3239 individuals with and 3808 without diabetes enrolled in Vejle Diabetes Biobank (2007-2010). Each individual was assessed for microangiography and macroangiopathy at enrollment based on registered diagnoses in the Danish National Patient Registry according to the International Classification of Disease 8 (1977-1993) and 10 (since 1994). Using multinomial logistic regression, relative risk ratios (RRRs) were calculated within each group of individuals with and without diabetes. RRRs were estimated for microangiopathic/macroangiopathic status compared with individuals without complications as a function of 1 nmol/L increments in K 1. Adjustment for potential confounders was also performed. Results Vitamin K 1 (median) varied 0.86-0.95 nmol/L depending on diabetes, microangiopathic and macroangiopathic status. In individuals with diabetes, the crude RRR for only having microangiopathy was 1.05 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.12) and was found significant when adjusting 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.19). RRR for having only macroangiopathy was 0.89 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.03) and was again significant when adjusting 0.79 (95% CI 0.66 to 0.96). In individuals without diabetes, adjustments again led to similar estimates that was not significant. The adjusted RRR for having only macroangiopathy was 1.08 (95% CI 0.98 to 1.19). Conclusions Serum vitamin K 1 levels were associated with microangiopathic and macroangiopathic status in individuals with diabetes, but considered of no clinical relevance. The clinical value of other candidate markers for vitamin K status needs to be evaluated in future studies.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere000961
JournalBMJ Open Diabetes Research and Care
Issue number1
Number of pages9
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2020


  • macroangiopathy
  • microangiopathy
  • vitamins


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