Serum selenium, selenoprotein P, and glutathione peroxidase 3 during early and late pregnancy in association with gestational diabetes mellitus: Prospective Odense Child Cohort

Kamil Demircan, Richard Christian Jensen, Thilo Samson Chillon, Tina Kold Jensen, Qian Sun, Steen Joop Bonnema, Julian Hackler, Tim I.M. Korevaar, Dorte Glintborg, Lutz Schomburg*, Marianne Skovsager Andersen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Background: Diet is an important modifiable risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and its related complications; however, the role of essential micronutrients such as selenium (Se), particularly in populations with low Se intake, is inconclusive. Objectives: The aim was to investigate the association of 3 established biomarkers of Se status with GDM, gestational glucose metabolism, and large for gestational-age offspring. Methods: This study included 1346 pregnant females with 2294 serum samples from the prospective, population-based Odense Child Cohort study, Denmark. Serum Se, selenoprotein P (SELENOP) concentrations, and glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPX3) activity were measured in early and late pregnancy, and fasting glucose and insulin assessments in late pregnancy. Homeostatic Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated, and the GDM definition was according to the WHO 2013 threshold of fasting venous plasma glucose of ≥5.1 mmol/L. A subcohort underwent an oral glucose tolerance test. Regression models adjusted for various confounders quantified dose-dependent associations. Results: Se and SELENOP declined during pregnancy. There were dose-dependent inverse associations of early GPX3 with late pregnancy GDM (WHO 2013), fasting glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, and 2 h glucose. The odds ratio (OR) of GDM was 0.33 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.65) for 1 log-scale-increment in early GPX3 activity. Late pregnancy GPX3 and SELENOP were inversely associated with GDM and HOMA-IR; the OR of GDM was 0.21 (95% CI: 0.12, 0.38) and 0.52 (95% CI: 0.35, 0.77), for 1 log-scale-increment of GPX3 and SELENOP, respectively. A decline in Se biomarkers during pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of GDM and higher HOMA-IR. Low GPX3 activity in late pregnancy was associated with a higher risk of large for gestational-age offspring, partly (∼20%) mediated by fasting glucose concentrations (P = 0.006). Conclusions: Low serum Se in pregnancy, particularly GPX3 activity, is independently associated with risk of GDM and large for gestational age. Offering Se status assessment in pregnancy identifies females at high risk for GDM who may benefit from Se substitution.

Original languageEnglish
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Volume118
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)1224-1234
ISSN0002-9165
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2023

Keywords

  • glutathione peroxidase
  • pregnancy outcomes
  • pregnancy-associated diabetes
  • selenium
  • selenoproteins
  • trace elements
  • Prospective Studies
  • Diabetes, Gestational/metabolism
  • Humans
  • Blood Glucose/metabolism
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Insulin
  • Pregnancy
  • Biomarkers
  • Female
  • Selenium
  • Selenoprotein P
  • Cohort Studies

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