Risk of dementia among older patients with lymphoma: A Danish nationwide matched cohort study

Eva Futtrup Maksten*, Lasse Hjort Jakobsen, Boris Modrau, Hilde Jensvoll, Kristian Hay Kragholm, Judit Mészáros Jørgensen, Michael Roost Clausen, Robert Schou Pedersen, Andriette Dessau-Arp, Thomas Stauffer Larsen, Christian Bjørn Poulsen, Anne Ortved Gang, Peter Brown, Tarec C. El-Galaly, Marianne Tang Severinsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Treatment of lymphoma can be associated with cognitive challenges, and some patients may fear development of dementia as long-term complication. Studies report a lower risk of dementia after cancer. Some believe this difference to be a protective mechanism of cancer, others believe it to be driven by bias. The risk of developing dementia after lymphoma has not been investigated in a population-based setting. The aim of this study was to identify the risk of being diagnosed with dementia after lymphoma treatment. Materials and Methods: This Danish nationwide matched cohort study included patients aged ≥65 years with a first-time diagnosis of a non-central nervous system lymphoma between 2005 and 2018 in complete remission after treatment with chemotherapy. Patients diagnosed with dementia or treated with dementia medication before lymphoma diagnosis were excluded. Each patient was matched 1:5 on sex, year of birth, and a modified Charlson comorbidity index. Patients and matched comparators were followed from the corresponding patient's date of complete remission. The risk of developing dementia was calculated using cause-specific hazard ratios (HR), and the cumulative risk was estimated by Aalen-Johansen with death as the competing risk. Results: A total of 3,244 patients and 16,220 matched comparators were included in the study. There was no difference in risk of all-cause dementia among patients with lymphoma compared to matched comparators with cause-specific HR of 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.70;1.04). The risk of both Alzheimer's disease and non-Alzheimer's dementia was equal among patients and comparators: HR 0.89 (95% CI: 0.66;1.21) and 0.82 (95% CI: 0.63;1.07), respectively. Stratified by lymphoma subtype, age, or year of diagnosis, the risk of all-cause dementia remained equal among patients and matched comparators. The cumulative risk of all-cause dementia was significantly lower among patients with lymphoma compared to matched comparators (Gray's test p < 0.001), probably reflecting higher mortality in patients with lymphoma. Discussion: The risk of all-cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease, and non-Alzheimer's dementia was equal among older patients with lymphoma compared to matched comparators. Our data suggests that risk of developing dementia is not changed after lymphoma treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101672
JournalJournal of Geriatric Oncology
Volume15
Issue number1
ISSN1879-4068
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Dementia
  • Late effects
  • Lymphoma
  • Survivorship
  • Denmark/epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Alzheimer Disease
  • Lymphoma/epidemiology
  • Cohort Studies

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