Objectives The strong association between atypical endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma is well established, but data on the risk of atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma in Danish women with non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia are almost non-existent. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of atypical hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma diagnosed within 3 months of initial diagnosis (defined as concurrent disease) and the risk of atypical hyperplasia and carcinoma more than 3 months after initial diagnosis (classified as progressive disease) in Danish women initially diagnosed with non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia. Design This cohort study recruited 102 women diagnosed with non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia at Randers Regional Hospital in Randers, Denmark, between 2000 and 2015. Methods The endometrium was evaluated by transvaginal ultrasound examination and office minihysteroscopy with biopsies in all non-hysterectomized women. Data regarding subsequent hysterectomy or endometrial sampling were obtained from medical records and the Danish Pathology Registry (Patobank). Results A total of 15 women were diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or carcinoma during followup. Concurrent atypical hyperplasia or carcinoma was seen in 2.9% (3/102), and among women who remained at risk for more than 3 months after initial diagnosis of non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia (n = 94), progression to atypical hyperplasia or carcinoma was seen in 13% (median follow-up 5.2 years, range 3.6 months to 15.1 years). Sixty-six percent of the women with progressive disease were diagnosed with atypical hyperplasia or carcinoma more than 1 year after initial diagnosis, but only two were diagnosed later than 5 years (5.2 and 9 years). Conclusions The risk of being diagnosed with atypical endometrial hyperplasia or endometrial carcinoma more than 5 years after an initial diagnosis of non-atypical endometrial hyperplasia seems to be low in Danish women. Specialized follow-up more than 5 years after diagnosis of nonatypical endometrial hyperplasia may not be warranted.
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