What is already known on the subject?: Understanding the need for psychoeducation and management strategies in relapse prevention, for individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Interventions for individuals with severe mental illness, especially schizophrenia, often requires support from family or social network to successfully improve mental stability in the life of the mentally ill. What the paper adds to existing knowledge?: To our knowledge, no previous review has provided an overview of state of the art intervention elements currently used in ambulant mental health care interventions and how these elements are combined in interventions tailored to individuals with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Moreover, this systematic review indicates the effect of the different intervention elements. This review reveals an apparent gab in knowledge regarding patient perceptions of and need for individualized relapse prevention interventions. What are the implications for practice?: The review is a relevant tool for stakeholders and practitioners in community mental health service when planning future interventions. Considering the specific needs for intervention complexity of the target group is likely to improve not only treatment outcome, but also patient satisfaction and treatment adherence. Abstract: Introduction In recent years, there has been a development in ambulant mental health care towards a more preventive approach, resulting in relapse prevention interventions. Interventions may be patient tailored, to a greater or lesser extent, in relation to the treatment elements included. Aim To create an overview of non-pharmacological intervention elements described in relapse prevention interventions for patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder based on a systematic review. Method Six scientific databases were systematically searched. The search strategy, identification and selection of literature complied with the PRISMA statement. Results Of 7.429 studies screened, 25 were included for analysis. Six treatment elements were identified: Pharmacological treatment, personalized action plan, patient education, patient skills, treatment adherence and family involvement. Discussion The varying degree of complexity of the interventions indicates that patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia have, respectively, different treatment needs. Patients with schizophrenia seem to benefit more from interventions that include support from social network or family than patients with bipolar disorder. More qualitative studies clarifying the patient's perspective on tailored relapse prevention are indicated. Implications for practice Optimally tailoring relapse prevention for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder will improve treatment outcome, and probably also treatment satisfaction and adherence.
- bipolar disorder
- community mental health services
- patient participation
- secondary prevention