The measured Yb 4d3/2 intensity is larger than the Yb 4d5/2 in X-ray photoelectron (XPS) emission of metallic Yb, which is unexpected. The shape and intensity of photoelectron peaks are strongly affected by extrinsic excitations due to electron transport out of the surface (including bulk and surface effects) and to intrinsic excitations due to the sudden creation of the static core hole. To quantitatively extract from experimental XPS the primary excitation spectrum (ie, the initial excitation process) of the considered transition, these effects must be included within the theoretical description. The combined effect of both extrinsic and intrinsic excitations can be described by an effective energy-differential inelastic electron scattering cross section for XPS evaluated by a dielectric response model with the dielectric function as only input. Then, using this cross section, a direct evaluation of the primary excitation spectrum is performed by standard peak shape analysis for thick homogeneous samples. We use this approach in the present paper to determine the Yb 4d photoemission spectrum for metallic Yb. We show that the unexpected larger intensity of Yb 4d3/2 compared to 4d5/2 can be fully accounted for by our model and that the total spectrum consists of a sum of symmetric primary excitation peaks.
Pauly , N., Yubero, F., & Tougaard, S. M. (2018). Quantitative analysis of Yb 4d photoelectron spectrum of metallic Yb. Surface and Interface Analysis, 50(11), 1168-1173. https://doi.org/10.1002/sia.6402