Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) may cause occupational asthma

Milene Torp Madsen*, Lars Rauff Skadhauge, Anders Daldorph Nielsen, Jesper Baelum, David Lee Sherson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Introduction: Anhydrides are widely used as cross-linking agents in epoxy resins and alkyd production, for example, as coatings and adhesives in plastic products. Sensitisation to several anhydrides is known to cause occupational asthma. There are indications that the lesser known pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) can cause irritative respiratory symptoms and possibly asthma. We report three cases of workers from a plastic foil manufacturing plant, who developed asthma when exposed to PMDA during specific inhalation challenge (SIC). Methods: SIC was performed over 2 days according to recommendations of European Respiratory Society. Lactose powder was used in control challenges and a mixture of 10% PMDA and 90% lactose powder in active challenges. Results: All cases experienced a delayed decrease in forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1) 4-12 hours after active challenge. FEV1 decreased by 19%, 15% and 16%, respectively. After 21 hours, FEV1 decreased by 24% in one worker. Discussion: Respiratory symptoms after working hours may represent delayed work-related asthma. During SIC, the three patients developed lower respiratory symptoms and a delayed decrease in FEV1 which suggest sensitisation. The mechanism of anhydride-related asthma is not well understood. Anhydrides are known irritants and hence an irritative response cannot be excluded. The company improved ventilation and enforced the use of respiratory protection equipment, and finally phased out PMDA. Occupational workplace risk identification may help to identify exposures. SIC can contribute to improving working conditions, by identifying and confirming asthmogens in the environment.

Original languageEnglish
JournalOccupational and Environmental Medicine
Volume76
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)175-177
ISSN1351-0711
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1. Mar 2019

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Occupational Asthma
Lactose
Powders
Irritants
Workplace
Adhesives
Ventilation
Equipment and Supplies
pyromellitic dianhydride

Keywords

  • anhydrides
  • asthma
  • asthma occupational
  • PMDA
  • pyromellitic dianhydride

Cite this

@article{a5be8d67f4c24d08ba6b0306571ccad7,
title = "Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) may cause occupational asthma",
abstract = "Introduction: Anhydrides are widely used as cross-linking agents in epoxy resins and alkyd production, for example, as coatings and adhesives in plastic products. Sensitisation to several anhydrides is known to cause occupational asthma. There are indications that the lesser known pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) can cause irritative respiratory symptoms and possibly asthma. We report three cases of workers from a plastic foil manufacturing plant, who developed asthma when exposed to PMDA during specific inhalation challenge (SIC). Methods: SIC was performed over 2 days according to recommendations of European Respiratory Society. Lactose powder was used in control challenges and a mixture of 10{\%} PMDA and 90{\%} lactose powder in active challenges. Results: All cases experienced a delayed decrease in forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1) 4-12 hours after active challenge. FEV1 decreased by 19{\%}, 15{\%} and 16{\%}, respectively. After 21 hours, FEV1 decreased by 24{\%} in one worker. Discussion: Respiratory symptoms after working hours may represent delayed work-related asthma. During SIC, the three patients developed lower respiratory symptoms and a delayed decrease in FEV1 which suggest sensitisation. The mechanism of anhydride-related asthma is not well understood. Anhydrides are known irritants and hence an irritative response cannot be excluded. The company improved ventilation and enforced the use of respiratory protection equipment, and finally phased out PMDA. Occupational workplace risk identification may help to identify exposures. SIC can contribute to improving working conditions, by identifying and confirming asthmogens in the environment.",
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author = "Madsen, {Milene Torp} and Skadhauge, {Lars Rauff} and Nielsen, {Anders Daldorph} and Jesper Baelum and Sherson, {David Lee}",
year = "2019",
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day = "1",
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language = "English",
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Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) may cause occupational asthma. / Madsen, Milene Torp; Skadhauge, Lars Rauff; Nielsen, Anders Daldorph; Baelum, Jesper; Sherson, David Lee.

In: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 76, No. 3, 01.03.2019, p. 175-177.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) may cause occupational asthma

AU - Madsen, Milene Torp

AU - Skadhauge, Lars Rauff

AU - Nielsen, Anders Daldorph

AU - Baelum, Jesper

AU - Sherson, David Lee

PY - 2019/3/1

Y1 - 2019/3/1

N2 - Introduction: Anhydrides are widely used as cross-linking agents in epoxy resins and alkyd production, for example, as coatings and adhesives in plastic products. Sensitisation to several anhydrides is known to cause occupational asthma. There are indications that the lesser known pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) can cause irritative respiratory symptoms and possibly asthma. We report three cases of workers from a plastic foil manufacturing plant, who developed asthma when exposed to PMDA during specific inhalation challenge (SIC). Methods: SIC was performed over 2 days according to recommendations of European Respiratory Society. Lactose powder was used in control challenges and a mixture of 10% PMDA and 90% lactose powder in active challenges. Results: All cases experienced a delayed decrease in forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1) 4-12 hours after active challenge. FEV1 decreased by 19%, 15% and 16%, respectively. After 21 hours, FEV1 decreased by 24% in one worker. Discussion: Respiratory symptoms after working hours may represent delayed work-related asthma. During SIC, the three patients developed lower respiratory symptoms and a delayed decrease in FEV1 which suggest sensitisation. The mechanism of anhydride-related asthma is not well understood. Anhydrides are known irritants and hence an irritative response cannot be excluded. The company improved ventilation and enforced the use of respiratory protection equipment, and finally phased out PMDA. Occupational workplace risk identification may help to identify exposures. SIC can contribute to improving working conditions, by identifying and confirming asthmogens in the environment.

AB - Introduction: Anhydrides are widely used as cross-linking agents in epoxy resins and alkyd production, for example, as coatings and adhesives in plastic products. Sensitisation to several anhydrides is known to cause occupational asthma. There are indications that the lesser known pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA) can cause irritative respiratory symptoms and possibly asthma. We report three cases of workers from a plastic foil manufacturing plant, who developed asthma when exposed to PMDA during specific inhalation challenge (SIC). Methods: SIC was performed over 2 days according to recommendations of European Respiratory Society. Lactose powder was used in control challenges and a mixture of 10% PMDA and 90% lactose powder in active challenges. Results: All cases experienced a delayed decrease in forced expiratory flow in 1 s (FEV1) 4-12 hours after active challenge. FEV1 decreased by 19%, 15% and 16%, respectively. After 21 hours, FEV1 decreased by 24% in one worker. Discussion: Respiratory symptoms after working hours may represent delayed work-related asthma. During SIC, the three patients developed lower respiratory symptoms and a delayed decrease in FEV1 which suggest sensitisation. The mechanism of anhydride-related asthma is not well understood. Anhydrides are known irritants and hence an irritative response cannot be excluded. The company improved ventilation and enforced the use of respiratory protection equipment, and finally phased out PMDA. Occupational workplace risk identification may help to identify exposures. SIC can contribute to improving working conditions, by identifying and confirming asthmogens in the environment.

KW - anhydrides

KW - asthma

KW - asthma occupational

KW - PMDA

KW - pyromellitic dianhydride

U2 - 10.1136/oemed-2018-105295

DO - 10.1136/oemed-2018-105295

M3 - Journal article

VL - 76

SP - 175

EP - 177

JO - Occupational and Environmental Medicine

JF - Occupational and Environmental Medicine

SN - 1351-0711

IS - 3

ER -