Background: Patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) generally adapt well to living with their device, but we know little about the prevalence of patients' body image concerns (BICs) postimplant. Methods: The objectives were to evaluate the psychometric properties of the ICD-body image concerns questionnaire (BICQ), find a cut-off indicating BICs and determine the prevalence of BICs. Construct validity was determined using the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin test, Scree-plot and explorative factor analysis. Internal consistency was examined via Cronbach's alpha. Correlations to other validated questionnaires, a weighted and simple scale and a cut-off indicating BICs was evaluated. Results: In total, 331 patients completed the 39-item ICD-BICQ together with: Type D Scale (DS14), Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and Florida Patient Acceptance Survey. Five patients were excluded due to reoperations, leaving 326 patients in the analyses. Results revealed a one-factor structure with 32 items and Cronbach's alpha at.948. A cut-off at 36 points displayed the 20% patients with the highest score of BICs. The prevalence was 29.8% in women and 18.4% in men. Conclusion: The psychometric evaluation of the 32-item ICD-BICQ showed acceptable construct validity and internal reliability. We recommend a cut-off score at 36 points to identify patients at risk of having BICs. The prevalence of BICs indicated that both men and women are at risk of having BICs. The ICD-BICQ can be used in clinical practice to help healthcare professionals to identify patients at risk of BICs and as to evaluate BICs when implementing new operation techniques.
- body image concerns
- implantable cardioverter defibrillator
- prevalence questionnaire