Prognostic Value of Early Systolic Lengthening by Strain Imaging in Type 2 Diabetes

Philip Brainin*, Tor Biering-Sørensen, Magnus T. Jensen, Rasmus Møgelvang, Thomas Fritz-Hansen, Tina Vilsbøll, Peter Rossing, Peter Godsk Jørgensen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) have increased risk for subclinical myocardial disease. Early systolic lengthening (ESL), a paradoxical stretch of myocardial fibers, is a sensitive marker of myocardial dysfunction. The aims of this study were to investigate the prognostic value of ESL in patients with T2D and to determine if global longitudinal strain (GLS) modifies this relationship. Methods: In this prospective study, speckle-tracking echocardiography was conducted in 703 patients with T2D (62% men; mean age, 63 ± 10 years; median diabetes duration, 11 years; interquartile range, 6–17 years). Patients had no histories of significant heart disease. ESL index was assessed as [−100 × (peak positive systolic strain/maximal strain)] and ESL duration as time from QRS complex on the electrocardiogram to time of peak positive systolic strain. P values ≤ .004 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Results: During a median follow-up time of 4.8 years (interquartile range, 4.1–5.3 years), 86 patients (12%) experienced major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), a composite of incident heart failure, myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular death. In multivariate models, only the ESL index (hazard ratio [HR], 1.06 per 1% increase; 95% CI, 1.01–1.010; P = .004) but not ESL duration (HR, 1.02 per 1-ms increase; 95% CI, 1.00–1.03; P = .036) were associated with MACE. GLS modified this relationship (P for interaction < .05) such that in patients with low GLS (>−18%), ESL index (HR, 1.06 per 1% increase; 95% CI, 1.02–1.10; P = .003) was associated with MACE, but ESL duration was not (HR, 1.02 per 1-ms increase; 95% CI, 1.00–1.04; P = .005). No associations were found for high GLS (<−18%). Conclusions: In patients with T2D and no histories of heart disease, ESL provides prognostic information on MACE and may potentially aid in cardiovascular risk stratification.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)127-135
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2021


  • Deformation
  • Early systolic lengthening
  • Prognosis
  • Speckle-tracking echocardiography
  • Type 2 diabetes


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