Prior to Implementation of Digital Pathology—Assessment of Expectations among Staff by Means of Normalization Process Theory

Minne L.N. Mikkelsen*, Marianne H. Frederiksen, Niels Marcussen, Bethany Williams, Kristian Kidholm

*Corresponding author for this work

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The Region of Southern Denmark is the first in Denmark to implement digital pathology (DIPA), starting at the end of 2020. The DIPA process involves changes in workflow, and the pathologist will have to diagnose based on digital whole slide imaging instead of through the traditional use of the conventional light microscope and glass slides. In addition, in the laboratory, the employees will have to implement one more step to their workflow—scanning of tissue. The aim of our study was to assess the expectations and readiness among employees and management towards the implementation of DIPA, including their thoughts and motivations for starting to use DIPA. We used a mixed-method approach. Based on the findings derived from 18 semi-structured interviews with employees from the region’s departments of pathology, we designed a questionnaire, including questions from the normalization measure development tool. The questionnaires were e-mailed to 181 employees. Of these employees, 131 responded to the survey. Overall, they reported feeling sufficiently tech-savvy to be able to use DIPA, and they had high expectations as well as motivation and readiness for the upcoming changes. However, the employees were skeptical regarding the allocation of resources, and few were aware of reports about the effects of DIPA. Based on the findings, it seems to be important to provide not only a thorough introduction to the new intervention and the changes it will entail, but also to continue to ensure that the staff know how it works and why it is necessary to implement.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7253
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number12
Number of pages19
Publication statusPublished - 1. Jun 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • digital pathology
  • implementation
  • management of digital transformation
  • normalization measure development tool (NoMAD)
  • technology
  • whole slide imaging (WSI)


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