Prediction of overt hepatic encephalopathy by the continuous reaction time method and the portosystemic encephalopathy syndrome test in clinically mentally unimpaired patients with cirrhosis

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Abstract

Background and aim Predicting overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) is important because the condition is frequent, often requires hospitalization and is potentially preventable. The risk of OHE is related to pre-existing discrete cognitive defects, and for clinical practice it is recommended to apply two different psychometric tests to detect such deficits. We used the continuous reaction time test (CRT) and the portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) syndrome test and examined their single and combined value for OHE prediction in cirrhosis patients. Patients and methods We studied 130 clinically mentally unimpaired cirrhosis patients by the two tests and followed them for an average of 38.5 months. The CRT measures velocity and stability of motor reaction times to 150 repeated auditory signals. The PSE is a five sub-set paper- and-pencil test battery evaluating cognitive and psychomotor processing, speed and vision-motor coordination. We collected data on episodes of OHE during follow-up. The clinical course was analysed in patient groups according to the outcome of each test and of both tests together. No anti-HE treatment was initiated except for cases with OHE. Results At baseline, the CRT test was abnormal in 74 patients and the PSE in 47. During follow-up 35 patients (27%) experienced 74 OHE events. 23 patients with abnormal CRT experienced OHE (prediction sensitivity 65%). The PSE predicted OHE in 14 patients (prediction sensitivity 40%). One or both tests were abnormal in 87/130 (67%) and this predicted OHE in 27 patients (21%) (prediction sensitivity 77%). Conclusion The CRT test was clinically useful in identifying two-thirds of clinically mentally unimpaired cirrhosis patients who later experienced OHE, and the use of both the CRT and PSE showed satisfactory prediction by identifying three-fourths of later OHE cases.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0226283
JournalP L o S One
Volume14
Issue number12
Number of pages12
ISSN1932-6203
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 12. Dec 2019

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