Platinum Demand and Potential Bottlenecks in the Global Green Transition

A Dynamic Material Flow Analysis

Kasper Dalgas Rasmussen, Henrik Wenzel, Colton Bangs, Evi Petavratzi, Gang Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Platinum, as a key catalytic material, is important for the global green transition due both to its current main use in autocatalysts and its increasing use in emerging and renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. In this study, we developed a dynamic material flow analysis model to characterize the global platinum cycle between 1975 and 2016 and to develop scenarios for future global platinum demand to 2050. Our results show that the autocatalyst and jewelry uses represent the most primary platinum use and possess the highest platinum stocks in use by 2016; however, when closed loop recycling is considered, the gross platinum demand from the glass industry would be the largest. Many socioeconomic (e.g., population and car ownership) and technological (e.g., engine and energy technologies) factors will affect the future demand for platinum in a global green transition. Our analysis concludes that, only in high demand scenarios and when fuel cell market penetration is high compared to the expected, the aggregate demand to 2050 will exceed the 2016 global platinum reserves. Improving the end of life collection and recycling rates would be important to address potential future supply risks due to geopolitical reasons. These demand scenarios and further mapping of the global platinum value chain can help inform government and industry policies on transportation and energy transition, platinum supply risk mitigation, and recycling capacity planning and technology development.

Original languageEnglish
JournalEnvironmental Science & Technology
Volume53
Issue number19
Pages (from-to)11541-11551
ISSN0013-936X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1. Oct 2019

Fingerprint

material flow analysis
Platinum
platinum
Recycling
recycling
fuel cell
Fuel cells
demand
car ownership
Glass industry
technological development
engine
Railroad cars
mitigation
penetration

Cite this

@article{77f257acd14c40f3806ad92a2b5ab3a6,
title = "Platinum Demand and Potential Bottlenecks in the Global Green Transition: A Dynamic Material Flow Analysis",
abstract = "Platinum, as a key catalytic material, is important for the global green transition due both to its current main use in autocatalysts and its increasing use in emerging and renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. In this study, we developed a dynamic material flow analysis model to characterize the global platinum cycle between 1975 and 2016 and to develop scenarios for future global platinum demand to 2050. Our results show that the autocatalyst and jewelry uses represent the most primary platinum use and possess the highest platinum stocks in use by 2016; however, when closed loop recycling is considered, the gross platinum demand from the glass industry would be the largest. Many socioeconomic (e.g., population and car ownership) and technological (e.g., engine and energy technologies) factors will affect the future demand for platinum in a global green transition. Our analysis concludes that, only in high demand scenarios and when fuel cell market penetration is high compared to the expected, the aggregate demand to 2050 will exceed the 2016 global platinum reserves. Improving the end of life collection and recycling rates would be important to address potential future supply risks due to geopolitical reasons. These demand scenarios and further mapping of the global platinum value chain can help inform government and industry policies on transportation and energy transition, platinum supply risk mitigation, and recycling capacity planning and technology development.",
author = "Rasmussen, {Kasper Dalgas} and Henrik Wenzel and Colton Bangs and Evi Petavratzi and Gang Liu",
year = "2019",
month = "10",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1021/acs.est.9b01912",
language = "English",
volume = "53",
pages = "11541--11551",
journal = "Environmental Science & Technology (Washington)",
issn = "0013-936X",
publisher = "ACS American Chemical Society",
number = "19",

}

Platinum Demand and Potential Bottlenecks in the Global Green Transition : A Dynamic Material Flow Analysis. / Rasmussen, Kasper Dalgas; Wenzel, Henrik; Bangs, Colton; Petavratzi, Evi; Liu, Gang.

In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 53, No. 19, 01.10.2019, p. 11541-11551.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Platinum Demand and Potential Bottlenecks in the Global Green Transition

T2 - A Dynamic Material Flow Analysis

AU - Rasmussen, Kasper Dalgas

AU - Wenzel, Henrik

AU - Bangs, Colton

AU - Petavratzi, Evi

AU - Liu, Gang

PY - 2019/10/1

Y1 - 2019/10/1

N2 - Platinum, as a key catalytic material, is important for the global green transition due both to its current main use in autocatalysts and its increasing use in emerging and renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. In this study, we developed a dynamic material flow analysis model to characterize the global platinum cycle between 1975 and 2016 and to develop scenarios for future global platinum demand to 2050. Our results show that the autocatalyst and jewelry uses represent the most primary platinum use and possess the highest platinum stocks in use by 2016; however, when closed loop recycling is considered, the gross platinum demand from the glass industry would be the largest. Many socioeconomic (e.g., population and car ownership) and technological (e.g., engine and energy technologies) factors will affect the future demand for platinum in a global green transition. Our analysis concludes that, only in high demand scenarios and when fuel cell market penetration is high compared to the expected, the aggregate demand to 2050 will exceed the 2016 global platinum reserves. Improving the end of life collection and recycling rates would be important to address potential future supply risks due to geopolitical reasons. These demand scenarios and further mapping of the global platinum value chain can help inform government and industry policies on transportation and energy transition, platinum supply risk mitigation, and recycling capacity planning and technology development.

AB - Platinum, as a key catalytic material, is important for the global green transition due both to its current main use in autocatalysts and its increasing use in emerging and renewable energy technologies such as fuel cells and electrolyzers. In this study, we developed a dynamic material flow analysis model to characterize the global platinum cycle between 1975 and 2016 and to develop scenarios for future global platinum demand to 2050. Our results show that the autocatalyst and jewelry uses represent the most primary platinum use and possess the highest platinum stocks in use by 2016; however, when closed loop recycling is considered, the gross platinum demand from the glass industry would be the largest. Many socioeconomic (e.g., population and car ownership) and technological (e.g., engine and energy technologies) factors will affect the future demand for platinum in a global green transition. Our analysis concludes that, only in high demand scenarios and when fuel cell market penetration is high compared to the expected, the aggregate demand to 2050 will exceed the 2016 global platinum reserves. Improving the end of life collection and recycling rates would be important to address potential future supply risks due to geopolitical reasons. These demand scenarios and further mapping of the global platinum value chain can help inform government and industry policies on transportation and energy transition, platinum supply risk mitigation, and recycling capacity planning and technology development.

U2 - 10.1021/acs.est.9b01912

DO - 10.1021/acs.est.9b01912

M3 - Journal article

VL - 53

SP - 11541

EP - 11551

JO - Environmental Science & Technology (Washington)

JF - Environmental Science & Technology (Washington)

SN - 0013-936X

IS - 19

ER -