Patterns of Perceived Indoor Environment in Danish Homes

Stine Kloster*, Anne Marie Kirkegaard, Michael Davidsen, Anne Illemann Christensen, Niss Skov Nielsen, Lars Gunnarsen, Annette Kjær Ersbøll

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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The indoor environment is composed of several exposures existing simultaneously. Therefore, it might be useful to combine exposures into common combined measures when used to assess the association with health. The aim of our study was to identify patterns of the perceived indoor environment. Data from the Danish Health and Morbidity Survey in the year 2000 were used. The perceived indoor environment was assessed using a questionnaire (e.g., annoyances from noise, draught, and stuffy air; 13 items in total). Factor analysis was used to explore the structure of relationships between these 13 items. Furthermore, groups of individuals with similar perceived indoor environment were identified using latent class analysis. A total of 16,688 individuals ≥16 years participated. Their median age was 46 years. Four factors were extracted from the factor analysis. The factors were characterized by: (1) a mixture of items, (2) temperature, (3) traffic, and (4) neighbor noise. Moreover, three groups of individuals sharing the same perception of their indoor environment were identified. They were characterized by: a low (n = 14,829), moderate (n = 980), and large number of annoyances (n = 879). Observational studies need to take this correlation and clustering of perceived annoyances into account when studying associations between the indoor environment and health.

Original languageEnglish
Article number11498
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Issue number18
Number of pages15
Publication statusPublished - 2. Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The study received financial support from Realdania (Grant number: PRJ-2019-00310). Realdania had no influence on study design, analyses, manuscript preparation, or publications.


  • annoyances
  • clustering
  • environmental epidemiology
  • factor analysis
  • housing condition
  • latent class analysis
  • perceived indoor environment


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