Background: Internet-based Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (iCBT) for depression have been implemented in routine care across Europe in varying ways, at various scales and with varying success. This study aimed to advance our understanding of organisational implementation climate from the perspectives of implementers and mental health service deliverers. Methods: Qualitative and quantitative methods were combined to study the concept of organisational implementation climate in mental health care settings. Based on concept mapping, a qualitative workshop with implementers was used to conceptualise organisational implementation climate for optimizing iCBT use in routine practice. Service deliverers involved in the provision of iCBT were invited to participate in an explorative cross-sectional survey assessing levels of satisfaction and usability of iCBT, and organisational implementation climate in implementing iCBT. The two methods were applied independently to study viewpoints of implementers as well as service deliverers. Corresponding to the explorative nature of the study, inductive reasoning was applied to identify patterns and develop a reasonable explanation of the observations made. Correlative associations between satisfaction, usability and implementation climate were explored. Results: Sixteen implementers representing fourteen service delivery organisations across Europe participated in the workshop. The top-three characteristics of a supportive organisational implementation climate included: (1) clear roles and skills of implementers, (2) feasible implementation targets, and (3) a dedicated implementation team. The top-three tools for creating a supportive implementation climate included: (1) feedback on job performance, (2) progress monitoring in achieving implementation targets, and (3) guidelines for assessing the impact of iCBT. The survey (n=111) indicated that service providers generally regarded their organisational implementation climate as supportive in implementing iCBT services. Organisational implementation climate was weakly associated with perceived usability and moderately with satisfaction with iCBT services. Conclusions: Organisational implementation climate is a relevant factor to implementers and service deliverers in implementing iCBT in routine care. It is not only an inherent characteristic of the context in which implementation takes place, it can also be shaped to improve implementation of iCBT services. Future research should further theorise organisational implementation climate and empirically validate the measurement instruments such as used in this study.
- Internet-based Cognitive Behavioural Therapy
- Organisational Context
- Organisational Implementation Climate
- Service deliverers