Online consultations in mental healthcare: Modelling determinants of use and experience based on an international survey study at the onset of the pandemic

Tom Van Daele, Kim Mathiasen, Per Carlbring*, Sylvie Bernaerts, Agostino Brugnera, Angelo Compare, Aranzazu Duque, Jonas Eimontas, David Gosar, Lise Haddouk, Maria Karekla, Pia Larsen, Gianluca Lo Coco, Tine Nordgreen, João Salgado, Andreas R. Schwerdtfeger, Eva Van Assche, Sam Willems, Nele A.J. De Witte

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Introduction: While online consultations have shown promise to be a means for the effective delivery of high-quality mental healthcare and the first implementations of these digital therapeutic contacts go back nearly two decades, uptake has remained limited over the years. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic dramatically altered this relative standstill and created a unique turning point, with a massive amount of both professionals and clients having first hands-on experiences with technology in mental healthcare. Objective: The current study aimed to document the uptake of online consultations and explore if specific characteristics of mental health professionals across and beyond Europe could predict this. Methods: An international survey was designed to assess mental health professionals' (initial) experiences with online consultations at the onset of the pandemic: their willingness to make use of them and their prior and current experiences, alongside several personal characteristics. Logistic mixed-effects models were used to identify predictors of the use of online consultations, personal experience with this modality, and the sense of telepresence. Results: A total of 9115 healthcare professionals from 73 countries participated of which about two-thirds used online consultations during the initial COVID-19 outbreak. The current study identifies multiple determinants relating to the use and experience of online consultations, including the professionals' age, experience with the technology before the outbreak, the professional context, and training. Conclusions: Despite strong evidence supporting the relevance of training in digital mental health, this is clearly still lacking. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic presented a first, and potentially transformative, experience with online consultations for many healthcare professionals. The insights from this study can help support professionals and, importantly, (mental) healthcare organisations to create optimal circumstances for selective and high-quality continued use of online consultations.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100571
JournalInternet Interventions
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • COVID-19
  • Digital mental health
  • Online consultations
  • Telepresence


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