ABSTRACT: In patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) the immune system is activated with an inflammatory response to follow. In STEMI patients with a severe inflammatory response, risk of development of cardiogenic shock (CS) seems increased. Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) is a glycoprotein released from mature neutrophils and plasma concentration may increase immediately after STEMI. We therefore aimed to assess whether admission NGAL plasma concentration in patients with STEMI was associated with CS development after leaving the catheterization laboratory (late CS) and 30-day all-cause mortality. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1,892 consecutive patients with STEMI 1,626 (86%) had plasma NGAL concentration measured upon hospital admission before angiography throughout a 1-year period at two tertiary heart centers in Denmark. Patients were stratified according to NGAL quartiles (Q1-4). To assess late CS development, we adjusted for the Observatoire Régional Breton sur l'Infarctus risk score for late CS. For mortality assessment, we adjusted for gender, age, post-PCI culprit Thrombolysis in myocardial infarction flow, left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), kidney dysfunction, and being comatose after cardiac arrest. RESULTS: Increasing NGAL concentration was associated with higher age, more comorbidities, and more critical patient conditions including lower blood pressure and LVEF. When adjusted for factors associated with poor outcome, NGAL remained independently associated with both late CS development (Q4 vs. Q1-3) (OR (95% CI) 3.64 (1.79-7.41) and 30-day mortality (HR (95% CI) 3.18 (1.73-5.84)). CONCLUSION: Admission plasma concentration of NGAL in STEMI patients is independently associated with 30-day all-cause mortality and predictive of late CS development.
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