Paclitaxel-induced peripheral neuropathy (PIPN) is a barrier to effective cancer treatment and impacts quality of life among patients with cancer. We used a translational approach to assess the utility of neurofilament light chain (NFL) as a biomarker of PIPN in a human cell model and in patients with ovarian cancer. We measured NFL in medium from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived sensory neurons (iPSC-SNs) exposed to paclitaxel. Serum NFL (sNFL) levels were quantified in 190 patients with ovarian cancer receiving paclitaxel/carboplatin chemotherapy at baseline and after each of the following 2 or 6 cycles. Adverse outcomes related to PIPN were retrospectively obtained, and Cox regression model was performed with different sNFL cut-offs after first cycle. The apparent elimination half-life of sNFL was estimated in patients who discontinued paclitaxel. Paclitaxel neurotoxicity in iPSC-SNs was accompanied by NFL release in a concentration-dependent manner ( P < 0.001, analysis of variance). Serum NFL levels increased substantially in patients during paclitaxel/carboplatin chemotherapy with considerable interindividual variability. Patients with sNFL >150 pg/mL after first cycle had increased risk to discontinue paclitaxel early (unadjusted HR: 2.47 [95% CI 1.16-5.22], adjusted HR: 2.25 [95% CI: 0.88-5.79]). Similar trends were shown for risk of severe PIPN and paclitaxel dose reduction because of PIPN. The median elimination half-life of sNFL was 43 days (IQR 27-82 days). Neurofilament light chain constitutes an objective biomarker of neurotoxicity in iPSC-SNs and in ovarian cancer patients with high sNFL predicting PIPN-related adverse outcomes. If prospectively validated, NFL can be used to study PIPN and may guide clinical decision making and personalize treatment with paclitaxel.

Original languageEnglish
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9. Dec 2022

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