Natural Variation in the Sex Gap in Life Expectancy

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Abstract

Women outlive men in all countries of the world and for decades women’s life expectancy has increased more rapidly then that of males. Factors contributing to these observations are believed to be associated with the external environment and internal biological factors. It has been hypothesized that females withstand harsh environments better then males in terms of survival, partly explaining their higher life expectancy. If this hypothesis is true and females survive environmental stressors better then males then large sex differences in life expectancies could reflect the action of these environmental factors whereas small differences would reflect a lower action of the factors and approach the ‘natural’ biological level. Here we examine variability in sex differences in life expectancy in 47 historical and contemporary human populations to address our hypothesis: large sex differences in life expectancies reflect large variation in mortality across age and thus indicate larger influence from environmental factors.
Original languageEnglish
Publication date28. Apr 2017
Publication statusPublished - 28. Apr 2017
EventPopulation Association of America 2017 - Hilton Chicago, Chicago, IL, United States
Duration: 24. Apr 201729. May 2017
http://www.populationassociation.org/sidebar/annual-meeting/

Conference

ConferencePopulation Association of America 2017
LocationHilton Chicago
CountryUnited States
CityChicago, IL
Period24/04/201729/05/2017
Internet address

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life expectancy
environmental factor
mortality
woman

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Lindahl-Jacobsen, R., Zarulli, V., Christensen, K., Vaupel, J. W., & Oeppen, J. (2017). Natural Variation in the Sex Gap in Life Expectancy. Abstract from Population Association of America 2017, Chicago, IL, United States.
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abstract = "Women outlive men in all countries of the world and for decades women’s life expectancy has increased more rapidly then that of males. Factors contributing to these observations are believed to be associated with the external environment and internal biological factors. It has been hypothesized that females withstand harsh environments better then males in terms of survival, partly explaining their higher life expectancy. If this hypothesis is true and females survive environmental stressors better then males then large sex differences in life expectancies could reflect the action of these environmental factors whereas small differences would reflect a lower action of the factors and approach the ‘natural’ biological level. Here we examine variability in sex differences in life expectancy in 47 historical and contemporary human populations to address our hypothesis: large sex differences in life expectancies reflect large variation in mortality across age and thus indicate larger influence from environmental factors.",
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Lindahl-Jacobsen, R, Zarulli, V, Christensen, K, Vaupel, JW & Oeppen, J 2017, 'Natural Variation in the Sex Gap in Life Expectancy', Population Association of America 2017, Chicago, IL, United States, 24/04/2017 - 29/05/2017.

Natural Variation in the Sex Gap in Life Expectancy. / Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune; Zarulli, Virginia; Christensen, Kaare; Vaupel, James W. ; Oeppen, James.

2017. Abstract from Population Association of America 2017, Chicago, IL, United States.

Research output: Contribution to conference without publisher/journalConference abstract for conferenceResearchpeer-review

TY - ABST

T1 - Natural Variation in the Sex Gap in Life Expectancy

AU - Lindahl-Jacobsen, Rune

AU - Zarulli, Virginia

AU - Christensen, Kaare

AU - Vaupel, James W.

AU - Oeppen, James

PY - 2017/4/28

Y1 - 2017/4/28

N2 - Women outlive men in all countries of the world and for decades women’s life expectancy has increased more rapidly then that of males. Factors contributing to these observations are believed to be associated with the external environment and internal biological factors. It has been hypothesized that females withstand harsh environments better then males in terms of survival, partly explaining their higher life expectancy. If this hypothesis is true and females survive environmental stressors better then males then large sex differences in life expectancies could reflect the action of these environmental factors whereas small differences would reflect a lower action of the factors and approach the ‘natural’ biological level. Here we examine variability in sex differences in life expectancy in 47 historical and contemporary human populations to address our hypothesis: large sex differences in life expectancies reflect large variation in mortality across age and thus indicate larger influence from environmental factors.

AB - Women outlive men in all countries of the world and for decades women’s life expectancy has increased more rapidly then that of males. Factors contributing to these observations are believed to be associated with the external environment and internal biological factors. It has been hypothesized that females withstand harsh environments better then males in terms of survival, partly explaining their higher life expectancy. If this hypothesis is true and females survive environmental stressors better then males then large sex differences in life expectancies could reflect the action of these environmental factors whereas small differences would reflect a lower action of the factors and approach the ‘natural’ biological level. Here we examine variability in sex differences in life expectancy in 47 historical and contemporary human populations to address our hypothesis: large sex differences in life expectancies reflect large variation in mortality across age and thus indicate larger influence from environmental factors.

M3 - Conference abstract for conference

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Lindahl-Jacobsen R, Zarulli V, Christensen K, Vaupel JW, Oeppen J. Natural Variation in the Sex Gap in Life Expectancy. 2017. Abstract from Population Association of America 2017, Chicago, IL, United States.