National norms of mental health for Denmark

Stine Bjerrum Moeller*, Matthias Gondan, Stephen F. Austin, Mike Slade, Sebastian Simonsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: To facilitate interpretation and clinical utility of patient-reported outcomes, normative data provide a reference for a person’s score on a particular outcome in relation to the general population. This study reports Danish general population norms for four mental health indicators, assessing social functioning (Sheehan Disability Scale, SDS) personal recovery (Brief INSPIRE-O), symptom burden (Symptom Check List-10, SCL-10) and subjective well-being (WHO-5). Methods: The study was a cross-sectional survey study organized by the State’s statistical authority among the general population of adult Danish residents in Denmark, ranging in age between 18 to 79 years. Results: A total of 8003 citizens were contacted including reminders from 2 March 2019 to 11 April 2019 by electronic letters, resulting in 2819 (35%) citizens providing complete responses. Female gender, higher age, Danish origin and living with a partner were associated with increased participation, and decreased participation was observed in male immigrants. We found a mean score of subjective well-being slightly lower than the population norm typically found in Danish general population studies. Elderly persons, Danes, and persons living with a partner reported better subjective mental health. Subjective well-being and personal recovery were positively correlated with social contacts and self-reported general health rating, and negatively correlated with social functioning and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Conclusion: This normative data provides a reference for interpreting mental health status. Our findings indicate slightly poorer subjective mental health than previously found. There is a need for special attention to engaging male immigrants in studies on mental health in the general population.

Original languageEnglish
JournalNordic Journal of Psychiatry
Volume77
Issue number6
Pages (from-to)617-623
ISSN0803-9488
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • general population norms
  • mental health
  • Patient-reported outcome measures (PROM)
  • personal recovery
  • social function
  • subjective well-being
  • survey study

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