Muscle strength in youth and cardiovascular risk in young adulthood (the European Youth Heart Study)

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Whether muscle strength in youth is related to cardiovascular risk later in life independent of cardiorespiratory fitness is unclear. METHODS: We examined the independent association of isometric muscle strength in youth with cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood using data from the Danish European Youth Heart Study; a population-based prospective cohort study among boys and girls (n=332) followed for up to 12 years. In youth maximal voluntary contractions during isometric back extension and abdominal flexion were determined using a strain-gauge dynamometer and cardiorespiratory fitness was obtained from a maximal cycle ergometer test. Cardiovascular risk factors were obtained in youth and in young adulthood. Associations were examined using multivariable-adjusted regression models including major confounding factors. RESULTS: Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle strength in youth (0.17 N/kg) was inversely associated with body mass index (BMI; -0.60 kg/m(2), 95% CI -0.97 to -0.22), triglyceride (-0.09 mmol/l, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.02), diastolic blood pressure (BP) (-1.22 mm Hg, 95% CI -2.15 to -0.29) and a composite cardiovascular risk factor score (-0.61 SD, 95% CI -1.03 to -0.20) in young adulthood in multivariable-adjusted analyses including fitness. Associations to triglyceride, diastolic BP and the cardiovascular risk factor score remained with additional adjustment for waist circumference or BMI. Each 1 SD difference in isometric muscle strength in youth was significantly associated with 0.59 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.87) lower odds of general overweight/obesity in young adulthood (p=0.007) and was marginally associated with incident raised BP, raised triglyceride and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that greater isometric muscle strength in youth is associated with lower levels of cardiovascular risk factors in young adulthood independent of fitness, adiposity and other confounding factors.
Original languageEnglish
JournalBritish Journal of Sports Medicine
Volume49
Issue number2
Pages (from-to)90-94
Number of pages5
ISSN0306-3674
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2015

Bibliographical note

Published Online First 23 March 2013

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology
  • Female
  • Heart Rate/physiology
  • Humans
  • Isometric Contraction/physiology
  • Male
  • Muscle Strength/physiology
  • Oxygen Consumption/physiology
  • Physical Fitness/physiology
  • Prospective Studies
  • Risk Factors
  • Sex Characteristics
  • Young Adult

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