Multiple formin proteins participate in glioblastoma migration

Vanina D. Heuser, Aida Kiviniemi, Laura Lehtinen, Sune Munthe, Bjarne Winther Kristensen, Jussi P. Posti, Jussi O.T. Sipilä, Ville Vuorinen, Olli Carpén, Maria Gardberg

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: The prognosis of glioblastoma remains poor, related to its diffuse spread within the brain. There is an ongoing search for molecular regulators of this particularly invasive behavior. One approach is to look for actin regulating proteins that might be targeted by future anti-cancer therapy. The formin family of proteins orchestrates rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in multiple cellular processes. Recently, the formin proteins mDia1 and mDia2 were shown to be expressed in glioblastoma in vitro, and their function could be modified by small molecule agonists. This finding implies that the formins could be future therapeutic targets in glioblastoma. METHODS: In cell studies, we investigated the changes in expression of the 15 human formins in primary glioblastoma cells and commercially available glioblastoma cell lines during differentiation from spheroids to migrating cells using transcriptomic analysis and qRT-PCR. siRNA mediated knockdown of selected formins was performed to investigate whether their expression affects glioblastoma migration. Using immunohistochemistry, we studied the expression of two formins, FHOD1 and INF2, in tissue samples from 93 IDH-wildtype glioblastomas. Associated clinicopathological parameters and follow-up data were utilized to test whether formin expression correlates with survival or has prognostic value. RESULTS: We found that multiple formins were upregulated during migration. Knockdown of individual formins mDia1, mDia2, FHOD1 and INF2 significantly reduced migration in most studied cell lines. Among the studied formins, knockdown of INF2 generated the greatest reduction in motility in vitro. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated expression of formin proteins FHOD1 and INF2 in glioblastoma tissues. Importantly, we found that moderate/high expression of INF2 was associated with significantly impaired prognosis. CONCLUSIONS: Formins FHOD1 and INF2 participate in glioblastoma cell migration. Moderate/high expression of INF2 in glioblastoma tissue is associated with worse outcome. Taken together, our in vitro and tissue studies suggest a pivotal role for INF2 in glioblastoma. When specific inhibiting compounds become available, INF2 could be a target in the search for novel glioblastoma therapies.

Original languageEnglish
Article number710
JournalBMC Cancer
Volume20
Number of pages11
ISSN1471-2407
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 29. Jul 2020

Keywords

  • Actin
  • FHOD1
  • Formin
  • Glioblastoma
  • Glioma
  • Immunohistochemistry
  • INF2
  • Knockdown
  • Migration
  • Outcome
  • Spheroid

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