MS2AI: Automated repurposing of public peptide LC-MS data for machine learning applications

Tobias Greisager Rehfeldt, Konrad Krawczyk, Mathias Bøgebjerg, Veit Schwämmle*, Richard Röttger

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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MOTIVATION: Liquid-chromatography mass-spectrometry (LC-MS) is the established standard for analyzing the proteome in biological samples by identification and quantification of thousands of proteins. Machine learning (ML) promises to considerably improve the analysis of the resulting data, however, there is yet to be any tool that mediates the path from raw data to modern ML applications. More specifically, ML applications are currently hampered by three major limitations: (1) absence of balanced training data with large sample size; (2) unclear definition of sufficiently information-rich data representations for e.g., peptide identification; (3) lack of benchmarking of ML methods on specific LC-MS problems.

RESULTS: We created the MS2AI pipeline that automates the process of gathering vast quantities of mass spectrometry (MS) data for large scale ML applications. The software retrieves raw data from either in-house sources or from the proteomics identifications database, PRIDE. Subsequently, the raw data is stored in a standardized format amenable for ML, encompassing MS1/MS2 spectra and peptide identifications. This tool bridges the gap between MS and AI, and to this effect we also present an ML application in the form of a convolutional neural network for the identification of oxidized peptides.

AVAILABILITY: An open-source implementation of the software can be found at

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

Original languageEnglish
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)875–877
Publication statusPublished - 1. Feb 2022

Bibliographical note

© The Author(s) (2021). Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:


  • Chromatography, Liquid/methods
  • Peptides/analysis
  • Proteome/chemistry
  • Software
  • Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods


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