Annually, about 865,000 specimens of live tortoises and freshwater turtles (Testudines) listed in the Appendices of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) are legally traded. The vast majority of those originate from captive-breeding and ranching facilities (CITES, CoP17 Doc. 73). CITES requires documentation of the source of a specimen and applies strict conditions that have to be met when a specimen is declared as produced in captivity. The high number of transactions of specimens claimed to be produced in captivity, however, has raised concerns about the potential misuse of source codes. Claims of commercial captive-breeding (source code C) is especially questionable for many turtles and tortoises as it requires considerable amounts of money and expertise and many turtles and tortoises grow slowly and mature late, making commercial captive-breeding unprofitable (Nijman & Shepherd, 2009; TRAFFIC, 2013). Custom officers and inspection officials are challenged to identify misuse of source codes, given the high numbers of exports and imports. The aim of this manual is therefore to provide guidance for inspection officials and customs officers and CITES Management and Scientific Authorities to aid in the identification of potential misuse of source codes.
|Number of pages||28|
|Commissioning body||Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora|
|Publication status||Published - 2019|
- captive breeding