Low physical activity and higher use of screen devices are associated with myopia at the age of 16-17 years in the CCC2000 Eye Study

Mathias Hvidtfelt Hansen*, Poul Pedersen Laigaard, Else Marie Olsen, Anne Mette Skovgaard, Michael Larsen, Line Kessel, Inger Christine Munch

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

Purpose: To determine the myopia prevalence in a Danish cohort aged 16–17 years and its relation to physical activity and use of screen-based electronic devices. Methods: The Copenhagen Child Cohort 2000 Eye Study is a prospective, population-based, observational study. Information about use of screen devices and physical activity was obtained using questionnaires. Myopia was defined as non-cycloplegic subjective spherical equivalent refraction ≤−0.50 D in right eye. Results: We included 1443 participants (45% boys) with a median age (±IQR) of 16.6 years (±0.3). The prevalence of myopia was 25% (CI95% 23–28, n = 360) with no differences between sexes (p = 0.10). The odds ratio (OR) for myopia was 0.57 (CI95% 0.42–0.76, p = 0.0002) in participants physically active 3–6 hr/week (n = 502) and 0.56 (CI95% 0.42–0.76, p = 0.0002) if active >6 hr/week (n = 506), both compared with participants physically active <3 hr/week (n = 396). The use of screen devices >6 hr/day was associated with increased OR for myopia compared with screen device use <2 hr/day in both weekdays (OR = 1.95, CI95% 1.16–3.30, p = 0.012) and weekends (OR = 2.10, CI95% 1.17–3.77, p = 0.013). Conclusion: In this cohort of healthy 16–17-year olds, lower physical activity and more use of screen devices contributed significantly to the observed 25% prevalence of myopia with a roughly doubled risk of having myopia if physically active <3 hr/week or if using screen devices >6 hr/day. Our results support physical activity being a protective factor and near work a risk factor for myopia in adolescents.

Original languageEnglish
JournalActa Ophthalmologica
Volume98
Issue number3
Pages (from-to)315-321
ISSN1755-375X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2020

Keywords

  • adolescents
  • cohort study
  • exercise
  • mobile devices
  • myopia prevalence
  • near-sightedness
  • physical activity
  • smartphones
  • tablets

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