Longitudinal Associations of Sensory and Cognitive Functioning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

Javier de la Fuente, Jacob Hjelmborg, Mette Wod, Alejandro de la Torre-Luque, Francisco Félix Caballero, Kaare Christensen, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Although visual and hearing impairments have been found to be associated with cognitive decline in the old age, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This study aimed at assessing the predictive role of visual and hearing difficulties on subsequent cognitive functioning.

METHOD: From the cohort of the first (2002) and fifth waves (2010) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), 3,508 individuals aged 60 and older were included in the study. Five self-reported visual and hearing functioning items were used to assess sensory functioning at baseline. Cognition was assessed 8 years later by means of four measured tests covering immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency, and processing speed. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes approach was used to assess the longitudinal associations of visual and hearing functioning with cognitive difficulties. A multigroup longitudinal measurement invariance was used to estimate latent change in cognitive difficulties across groups of participants presenting either visual, hearing, or dual sensory impairment (i.e., those reporting difficulties in both visual and hearing functioning items).

RESULTS: Visual (β = 0.140, p < .001) and hearing (β = 0.115, p < .001) difficulties predicted cognitive difficulties 8 years later. The latent increase in cognitive difficulties was steeper in people with visual impairment (d = 0.52, p < .001), hearing impairment (d = 0.50, p < .001), and dual-sensory impairment (d = 0.68, p < .001) than those non-impaired (d = 0.12, p < .001).

DISCUSSION: Visual and hearing difficulties were identified as predictors of subsequent cognitive decline in the old age. Interventions to prevent visual and hearing difficulties may have a substantial impact to slow down subsequent age-related cognitive decline.

Original languageEnglish
JournalJournals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences
Volume74
Issue number8
Pages (from-to)1308-1316
ISSN1079-5014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 4. Oct 2019

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visual impairment
hearing impairment
old age
Hearing
cognition
longitudinal study
cause
Group
Short-Term Memory
Cognition
Longitudinal Studies

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de la Fuente, Javier ; Hjelmborg, Jacob ; Wod, Mette ; de la Torre-Luque, Alejandro ; Caballero, Francisco Félix ; Christensen, Kaare ; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis. / Longitudinal Associations of Sensory and Cognitive Functioning : A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. In: Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences. 2019 ; Vol. 74, No. 8. pp. 1308-1316.
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title = "Longitudinal Associations of Sensory and Cognitive Functioning: A Structural Equation Modeling Approach",
abstract = "OBJECTIVES: Although visual and hearing impairments have been found to be associated with cognitive decline in the old age, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This study aimed at assessing the predictive role of visual and hearing difficulties on subsequent cognitive functioning.METHOD: From the cohort of the first (2002) and fifth waves (2010) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), 3,508 individuals aged 60 and older were included in the study. Five self-reported visual and hearing functioning items were used to assess sensory functioning at baseline. Cognition was assessed 8 years later by means of four measured tests covering immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency, and processing speed. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes approach was used to assess the longitudinal associations of visual and hearing functioning with cognitive difficulties. A multigroup longitudinal measurement invariance was used to estimate latent change in cognitive difficulties across groups of participants presenting either visual, hearing, or dual sensory impairment (i.e., those reporting difficulties in both visual and hearing functioning items).RESULTS: Visual (β = 0.140, p < .001) and hearing (β = 0.115, p < .001) difficulties predicted cognitive difficulties 8 years later. The latent increase in cognitive difficulties was steeper in people with visual impairment (d = 0.52, p < .001), hearing impairment (d = 0.50, p < .001), and dual-sensory impairment (d = 0.68, p < .001) than those non-impaired (d = 0.12, p < .001).DISCUSSION: Visual and hearing difficulties were identified as predictors of subsequent cognitive decline in the old age. Interventions to prevent visual and hearing difficulties may have a substantial impact to slow down subsequent age-related cognitive decline.",
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Longitudinal Associations of Sensory and Cognitive Functioning : A Structural Equation Modeling Approach. / de la Fuente, Javier; Hjelmborg, Jacob; Wod, Mette; de la Torre-Luque, Alejandro; Caballero, Francisco Félix; Christensen, Kaare; Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis.

In: Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences, Vol. 74, No. 8, 04.10.2019, p. 1308-1316.

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Longitudinal Associations of Sensory and Cognitive Functioning

T2 - A Structural Equation Modeling Approach

AU - de la Fuente, Javier

AU - Hjelmborg, Jacob

AU - Wod, Mette

AU - de la Torre-Luque, Alejandro

AU - Caballero, Francisco Félix

AU - Christensen, Kaare

AU - Ayuso-Mateos, José Luis

PY - 2019/10/4

Y1 - 2019/10/4

N2 - OBJECTIVES: Although visual and hearing impairments have been found to be associated with cognitive decline in the old age, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This study aimed at assessing the predictive role of visual and hearing difficulties on subsequent cognitive functioning.METHOD: From the cohort of the first (2002) and fifth waves (2010) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), 3,508 individuals aged 60 and older were included in the study. Five self-reported visual and hearing functioning items were used to assess sensory functioning at baseline. Cognition was assessed 8 years later by means of four measured tests covering immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency, and processing speed. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes approach was used to assess the longitudinal associations of visual and hearing functioning with cognitive difficulties. A multigroup longitudinal measurement invariance was used to estimate latent change in cognitive difficulties across groups of participants presenting either visual, hearing, or dual sensory impairment (i.e., those reporting difficulties in both visual and hearing functioning items).RESULTS: Visual (β = 0.140, p < .001) and hearing (β = 0.115, p < .001) difficulties predicted cognitive difficulties 8 years later. The latent increase in cognitive difficulties was steeper in people with visual impairment (d = 0.52, p < .001), hearing impairment (d = 0.50, p < .001), and dual-sensory impairment (d = 0.68, p < .001) than those non-impaired (d = 0.12, p < .001).DISCUSSION: Visual and hearing difficulties were identified as predictors of subsequent cognitive decline in the old age. Interventions to prevent visual and hearing difficulties may have a substantial impact to slow down subsequent age-related cognitive decline.

AB - OBJECTIVES: Although visual and hearing impairments have been found to be associated with cognitive decline in the old age, the mechanism underlying this relationship remains unclear. This study aimed at assessing the predictive role of visual and hearing difficulties on subsequent cognitive functioning.METHOD: From the cohort of the first (2002) and fifth waves (2010) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA), 3,508 individuals aged 60 and older were included in the study. Five self-reported visual and hearing functioning items were used to assess sensory functioning at baseline. Cognition was assessed 8 years later by means of four measured tests covering immediate and delayed recall, verbal fluency, and processing speed. A Multiple Indicators Multiple Causes approach was used to assess the longitudinal associations of visual and hearing functioning with cognitive difficulties. A multigroup longitudinal measurement invariance was used to estimate latent change in cognitive difficulties across groups of participants presenting either visual, hearing, or dual sensory impairment (i.e., those reporting difficulties in both visual and hearing functioning items).RESULTS: Visual (β = 0.140, p < .001) and hearing (β = 0.115, p < .001) difficulties predicted cognitive difficulties 8 years later. The latent increase in cognitive difficulties was steeper in people with visual impairment (d = 0.52, p < .001), hearing impairment (d = 0.50, p < .001), and dual-sensory impairment (d = 0.68, p < .001) than those non-impaired (d = 0.12, p < .001).DISCUSSION: Visual and hearing difficulties were identified as predictors of subsequent cognitive decline in the old age. Interventions to prevent visual and hearing difficulties may have a substantial impact to slow down subsequent age-related cognitive decline.

U2 - 10.1093/geronb/gby147

DO - 10.1093/geronb/gby147

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 30521005

VL - 74

SP - 1308

EP - 1316

JO - Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences

JF - Journals of Gerontology. Series B: Psychological Sciences & Social Sciences

SN - 1079-5014

IS - 8

ER -