PURPOSE: Almost half of people diagnosed with cancer are working age. Survivors have increased risk of unemployment, but little is known about long-term work retention. This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed work retention and associated factors in long-term cancer survivors.
METHODS: We searched Medline/Pubmed, Embase, PsychINFO, and CINAHL for studies published 01/01/2000-08/01/2019 reporting work retention in adult cancer survivors ≥ 2 years post-diagnosis. Survivors had to be in paid work at diagnosis. Pooled prevalence of long-term work retention was estimated. Factors associated with work retention from multivariate analysis were synthesized.
RESULTS: Twenty-nine articles, reporting 21 studies/datasets including 14,207 cancer survivors, were eligible. Work retention was assessed 2-14 years post-diagnosis. Fourteen studies were cross-sectional, five were prospective, and two contained both cross-sectional and prospective elements. No studies were scored as high quality. The pooled estimate of prevalence of long-term work retention in cancer survivors working at diagnosis was 0.73 (95%CI 0.69-0.77). The proportion working at 2-2.9 years was 0.72; at 3-3.9 years 0.80; at 4-4.9 years 0.75; at 5-5.9 years 0.74; and 6+ years 0.65. Pooled estimates did not differ by cancer site, geographical area, or study design. Seven studies assessed prognostic factors for work retention: older age, receiving chemotherapy, negative health outcomes, and lack of work adjustments were associated with not working.
CONCLUSION: Almost three-quarters of long-term cancer survivors working at diagnosis retain work.
IMPLICATIONS FOR CANCER SURVIVORS: These findings are pertinent for guidelines on cancer survivorship care. Professionals could focus support on survivors most likely to have poor long-term work outcomes.
- Cancer Survivors/psychology
- Cross-Sectional Studies
- Middle Aged
- Prospective Studies
- Rehabilitation, Vocational/methods