Long-Term Metabolic Outcomes after Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM): Results from the Odense GDM Follow-Up Study (OGFUS)

Kristine Hovde Jacobsen, Jori Aalders, Katrine Sølling, Marianne Skovsager Andersen, Maria Hornstrup Christensen, Christina Anne Vinter, Kurt Højlund, Dorte Møller Jensen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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Abstract

Aims: To compare metabolic profiles and the long-term risk of metabolic dysfunction between women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) and women without pGDM (non-GDM) matched on age, prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), and parity.

Methods: In total, 128 women with pGDM (median follow-up: 7.8 years) and 70 non-GDM controls (median follow-up: 10.0 years) completed a 2 h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) with assessment of glucose, C-peptide, insulin, and other metabolic measures. Additionally, anthropometrics, fat mass, and blood pressure were assessed and indices of insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were calculated.

Results: The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) was significantly higher in the pGDM group compared to the non-GDM group (26% vs. 0%). For women with pGDM, the prevalence of prediabetes (38%) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) (59%) were approximately 3-fold higher than in non-GDM women ( p' s < 0.001). Both insulin sensitivity and beta cell function were significantly reduced in pGDM women compared to non-GDM women.

Conclusion: Despite similar BMI, women with pGDM had a substantially higher risk of developing T2DM, prediabetes, and the MetS compared to controls. Both beta cell dysfunction and reduced insulin sensitivity seem to contribute to this increased risk.

Original languageEnglish
Article number4900209
JournalJournal of Diabetes Research
Volume2022
ISSN2314-6745
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2022

Keywords

  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/epidemiology
  • Diabetes, Gestational
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Insulin/therapeutic use
  • Insulin Resistance
  • Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology
  • Prediabetic State/epidemiology
  • Pregnancy

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