Long-Term Antibody Response against SARS-CoV-2 in Health Care Workers: Effectiveness of Homologous and Heterologous Regimens and Their Relation to Systemic Vaccine-Associated Symptoms

Helene Kierkegaard*, Birgit Thorup Røge, Amanda Nissen, Jonna Skov Madsen

*Corresponding author for this work

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Abstract

This prospective study provides data on the long-term humoral immunogenicity of a heterologous off-label vaccine regimen combining the adenoviral-vectored ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 from Astra-Zeneca (ChAd) with the mRNA-1273 vaccine from Moderna (m1273) in comparison with two different homologous mRNA vaccine schedules. Of the 316 COVID-19 naïve adult health care workers (HCW) included to complete a survey on vaccine-associated symptoms (VAS), 197 had received the homologous BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine from Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT/BNT), 76 the homologous m1273/m1273, and 43 the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen. The concentration of antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in plasma 5–7 months after the second vaccine dose was higher in the m1273/m1273 and ChAd/m1273 than the BNT/BNT vaccine group. The frequency of systemic VAS after the first vaccine dose was 86% after ChAd compared with 35% and 39% after BNT and m1273, respectively (p < 0.0001), and after the second vaccine dose, the highest (89%) in the m1273/m1273 group (p < 0.001). Individuals with systemic VAS achieved higher levels of antibodies irrespective of vaccine regimen. In conclusion, VAS serve as a strong predictor of long-term humoral immune response, and the heterologous ChAd/m1273 vaccine regimen provides an at least equal long-term humoral immune response compared with the standard vaccine regimens used in Denmark.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1599
JournalVaccines
Volume10
Issue number10
Number of pages12
ISSN2076-393X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 23. Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the authors.

Keywords

  • 19 Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay
  • BNT162b2 vaccine
  • ChAdOx1 vaccine
  • COVID-19 vaccines
  • mRNA-1273 vaccine
  • reactogenicity
  • vaccine effectiveness
  • vaccine-associated symptoms

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