Lipid-Modified Peptide Nucleic Acids: Synthesis and Application to Programmable Liposome Fusion

Philipp M.G. Löffler, Alexander Rabe, Stefan Vogel

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingBook chapterResearchpeer-review


Peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) can be modified with aliphatic lipid chains and designed to be water soluble and able to spontaneously insert into phospholipid bilayers. Liposomes with 1.5% negatively charged POPG can be driven to fuse and mix their inner content volumes via functionalization with such lipidated peptide nucleic acids (LiPNAs). During fusion, only low amounts of leakage occur (<5%). We describe here the synthesis and purification of such LiPNAs using an automated peptide synthesizer and the preparation of LiPNA functionalized liposomes. Further, we describe the measurement of LiPNA-induced fusion using a fluorescence-based assay for the content mixing between a liposome population with an encapsulated self-quenching fluorescent dye (SRB) and a buffer-filled liposome population.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPeptide Nucleic Acids
EditorsPeter E. Nielsen
Number of pages22
Publication date2020
ISBN (Print)978-1-0716-0242-3
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-0716-0243-0
Publication statusPublished - 2020
SeriesMethods in Molecular Biology


  • Content mixing assays
  • Lipid bilayer fusion
  • Lipidated PNA
  • Liposomes


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