Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified?

Kristian H. Winther*, Steen Bonnema, Laszlo Hegedüs

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing proinflammatory cytokine release. However, clinically relevant effects of selenium supplementation, including improvement in quality of life, are more elusive. In Graves’ disease, some, but not all, trials indicate that adjuvant selenium supplementation enhances the restoration of biochemical euthyroidism, and might benefit patients with mild Graves’ orbitopathy. SUMMARY: The use of selenium supplementation as adjuvant therapy to standard thyroid medication may be widespread, but a growing body of evidence yields equivocal results. The available evidence from trials does not support routine selenium supplementation in the standard treatment of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves’ disease. However, correction of moderate to severe selenium deficiency may offer benefits in preventing, as well as treating, these disorders. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed, but further studies are needed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCurrent Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity
Volume24
Issue number5
Pages (from-to)348–355
ISSN1752-296X
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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@article{e0e02c68b51c49289d943e788e164e82,
title = "Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified?",
abstract = "PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing proinflammatory cytokine release. However, clinically relevant effects of selenium supplementation, including improvement in quality of life, are more elusive. In Graves’ disease, some, but not all, trials indicate that adjuvant selenium supplementation enhances the restoration of biochemical euthyroidism, and might benefit patients with mild Graves’ orbitopathy. SUMMARY: The use of selenium supplementation as adjuvant therapy to standard thyroid medication may be widespread, but a growing body of evidence yields equivocal results. The available evidence from trials does not support routine selenium supplementation in the standard treatment of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves’ disease. However, correction of moderate to severe selenium deficiency may offer benefits in preventing, as well as treating, these disorders. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed, but further studies are needed.",
author = "Winther, {Kristian H.} and Steen Bonnema and Laszlo Heged{\"u}s",
year = "2017",
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language = "English",
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pages = "348–355",
journal = "Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity",
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}

Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified? / Winther, Kristian H.; Bonnema, Steen; Hegedüs, Laszlo.

In: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity, Vol. 24, No. 5, 2017, p. 348–355.

Research output: Contribution to journalReviewResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Is selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid diseases justified?

AU - Winther, Kristian H.

AU - Bonnema, Steen

AU - Hegedüs, Laszlo

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing proinflammatory cytokine release. However, clinically relevant effects of selenium supplementation, including improvement in quality of life, are more elusive. In Graves’ disease, some, but not all, trials indicate that adjuvant selenium supplementation enhances the restoration of biochemical euthyroidism, and might benefit patients with mild Graves’ orbitopathy. SUMMARY: The use of selenium supplementation as adjuvant therapy to standard thyroid medication may be widespread, but a growing body of evidence yields equivocal results. The available evidence from trials does not support routine selenium supplementation in the standard treatment of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves’ disease. However, correction of moderate to severe selenium deficiency may offer benefits in preventing, as well as treating, these disorders. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed, but further studies are needed.

AB - PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review provides an appraisal of recent evidence for or against selenium supplementation in patients with autoimmune thyroid diseases, and discusses possible effect mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: Epidemiological data suggest an increased prevalence of autoimmune thyroid diseases under conditions of low dietary selenium intake. Two systematic reviews have evaluated controlled trials among patients with autoimmune thyroiditis and report that selenium supplementation decreases circulating thyroid autoantibodies. The immunomodulatory effects of selenium might involve reducing proinflammatory cytokine release. However, clinically relevant effects of selenium supplementation, including improvement in quality of life, are more elusive. In Graves’ disease, some, but not all, trials indicate that adjuvant selenium supplementation enhances the restoration of biochemical euthyroidism, and might benefit patients with mild Graves’ orbitopathy. SUMMARY: The use of selenium supplementation as adjuvant therapy to standard thyroid medication may be widespread, but a growing body of evidence yields equivocal results. The available evidence from trials does not support routine selenium supplementation in the standard treatment of patients with autoimmune thyroiditis or Graves’ disease. However, correction of moderate to severe selenium deficiency may offer benefits in preventing, as well as treating, these disorders. Molecular mechanisms have been proposed, but further studies are needed.

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VL - 24

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JO - Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity

JF - Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes and Obesity

SN - 1752-296X

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ER -