Investigating the day-to-day impact of hypoglycaemia in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: design and validation protocol of the Hypo-METRICS application

Uffe Søholm*, Melanie Broadley, Natalie Zaremba, Patrick Divilly, Giesje Nefs, Zeinab Mahmoudi, Bastiaan de Galan, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, Alan Brennan, Daniel John Pollard, Rory J McCrimmon, Stephanie A Amiel, Christel Hendrieckx, Jane Speight, Pratik Choudhary, Frans Pouwer, Hypo-RESOLVE Consortium

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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INTRODUCTION: Hypoglycaemia is a frequent adverse event and major barrier for achieving optimal blood glucose levels in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes using insulin. The Hypo-RESOLVE (Hypoglycaemia-Redefining SOLutions for better liVEs) consortium aims to further our understanding of the day-to-day impact of hypoglycaemia. The Hypo-METRICS (Hypoglycaemia-MEasurement, ThResholds and ImpaCtS) application (app) is a novel app for smartphones. This app is developed as part of the Hypo-RESOLVE project, using ecological momentary assessment methods that will minimise recall bias and allow for robust investigation of the day-to-day impact of hypoglycaemia. In this paper, the development and planned psychometric analyses of the app are described.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The three phases of development of the Hypo-METRICS app are: (1) establish a working group-comprising diabetologists, psychologists and people with diabetes-to define the problem and identify relevant areas of daily functioning; (2) develop app items, with user-testing, and implement into the app platform; and (3) plan a large-scale, multicountry study including interviews with users and psychometric validation. The app includes 7 modules (29 unique items) assessing: self-report of hypoglycaemic episodes (during the day and night, respectively), sleep quality, well-being/cognitive function, social interactions, fear of hypoglycaemia/hyperglycaemia and work/productivity. The app is designed for use within three fixed time intervals per day (morning, afternoon and evening). The first version was released mid-2020 for use (in conjunction with continuous glucose monitoring and activity tracking) in the Hypo-METRICS study; an international observational longitudinal study. As part of this study, semistructured user-experience interviews and psychometric analyses will be conducted.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Use of the novel Hypo-METRICS app in a multicountry clinical study has received ethical approval in each of the five countries involved (Oxford B Research Ethics Committee, CMO Region Arnhem-Nijmegen, Ethikkommission der Medizinischen Universität Graz, Videnskabsetisk Komite for Region Hovedstaden and the Comite Die Protection Des Personnes SUD Mediterranne IV). The results from the study will be published in peer review journals and presented at national and international conferences.


Original languageEnglish
Article numbere051651
JournalBMJ Open
Issue number2
Number of pages11
Publication statusPublished - 1. Feb 2022


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