Influential factors to residential building Occupants’ acceptance and adoption of smart energy technologies in Denmark

Joy Billanes*, Peter Enevoldsen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review


Although Smart Energy Technologies (SETs) are proven effective in reducing energy consumption and improving energy efficiency in buildings, adoption of these technologies remains low. Scholars argue that lack of willingness to adopt SETs could hinder the transition to SETs. To address this challenge, this study integrates the substantial literature about technology acceptance, and applied the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) as the theoretical framework. The research model proposed consists of TAM, and five external factors which have been selected based on literature review. A survey-based method was used, sampling more than 3,000 residents from various cities across Denmark. The validated model includes examining the effects of TAM factors and external factors (e.g., attitudes, trust, knowledge, policy, social influence, and awareness) on Behavioural Intention (BI). The majority of the results show statistically significant effects on BI at p= <0.05, except Perceived Usefulness (PU) at p= greater than 0.05. Specifically, Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU), attitudes, trust, knowledge, awareness, social influence, and policy have significant influence on BI. On the contrary, PU has no influence on BI at p = 0.904. The findings are relevant for various reasons. Firstly, it is important for ensuring residential buildings can participate in Danish energy goals. Secondly, it provides a valuable reference for relevant stakeholders such as scholars, technology providers, and policy makers to foster the adoption of SETs in residential buildings. Lastly, the findings will be added to the literature of technology acceptance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number112524
JournalEnergy and Buildings
Number of pages7
Publication statusPublished - 1. Dec 2022
Externally publishedYes


  • Energy efficiency
  • Residential buildings
  • Smart energy technologies
  • Smart homes
  • Technology acceptance
  • Technology acceptance model


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