Inelastic electron scattering by the gas phase in near ambient pressure XPS measurements

Lukas Pielsticker, Rachel Nicholls, Sebastian Beeg, Caroline Hartwig, Gudrun Klihm, Robert Schlögl, Sven Tougaard, Mark Greiner*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalJournal articleResearchpeer-review

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X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS) measurements in near-ambient pressure (NAP) conditions result in a signal loss of the primary spectrum as a result of inelastic scattering of photoelectrons in the gas phase. The inelastic scattering of the primary electrons gives rise to a secondary signal that can result in additional and often unwanted features in the measured spectrum. In the present work, we derive equations that can be used to model the resulting signal and provide equations that can be used to simulate or remove the inelastic scattering signal from measured spectra. We demonstrate this process for photoemission spectra of a wide range of kinetic energies, measured from Au, Ag, and Cu, in a variety of gases (N2, He, H2, and O2). The work is supplemented with an open-source software in which the algorithms described here have been implemented and can be used to remove the gas phase inelastic scattering signal.

Original languageEnglish
JournalSurface and Interface Analysis
Issue number7
Pages (from-to)605-617
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021

Bibliographical note

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 The Authors. Surface and Interface Analysis published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


  • electron spectroscopy
  • in situ
  • inelastic scattering


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